Wn@Tl – Disability In The Middle Ages: Five Brief Histories. Leah Pope Parker. 2021

welcome everyone to Winston at the lab I’m Tamsin and I work here at the uw-madison biotechnology Center I also work for UW extension Cooperative Extension and on behalf of those folks and our other cool organizers Wisconsin Public Television Wisconsin Alumni Association and the UW Madison science Alliance thanks again for coming to Wednesday night at the lab you do this every Wednesday night 50 times a year tonight it’s my pleasure to welcome back to Wednesday night’s lab Leah Pope Parker of the Department of English she’s going to be talking with us about her research on disability in the Middle Ages five brief histories Lee was born in Seattle Washington and went to Mountlake Terrace High School near Seattle and she went to the east coast of the United States to go to American University in Washington DC where she studied literature and theatre and she came to UW Madison to get her master’s in English which she got in 2014 and she has already defended her PhD thesis and she’s in this wonderful process called depositing and she will get her PhD in the spring here in the Department of English at UW Madison please join me in welcoming léopold Parker back to Wednesday night [Applause] check can y’all hear me okay great great I’m glad. thank you all for coming I was a bit worried when I realized I’d be speaking on the last Wednesday night official Wednesday night of the year and. I’m. glad to see you all here thank you for coming out and thank you Tom for that lovely introduction. I study the history of disability in literature and culture and. for those of you coming from more of a science or or medical background this may be a different perspective on disability from what you’re used to. rather than studying things like how disability works how the body actually biologically works my job is instead to think about how we think the body works and. I hope that brings you some exciting surprises this evening because my goal is to share with you a couple of different stories about how we used to think about how the body works and specifically how we thought the body works in the European Middle Ages specifically between the years well for me the Middle Ages are about 500 to 1500 seee but in terms of what I’ll actually be discussing really more like the late ninth century through the 15th and a little bit of the 16th century. I’ll be checking for how you’re falling beyond my stories all along. I’m excited to share these with you one thing I do want to point out is that my research is on the early Middle Ages like the 7th through the 12th centuries and specifically it’s on England and. that means that my examples here are going to be sort of biased in that direction it also means that the language is a lot easier to share but I will branch out into continental Europe and I’m happy to answer questions or respond to questions as well as I can about continental Europe if you have them. my goal here is to share share with you five different kinds of stories about how disability was understood by people living in Europe in the Middle Ages and. there will be a political story a medical story a religious story an artistic story and a poetic story each of these however contains within it components of some of the others. expect some some bleed across these divides these five case studies won’t tell the whole story and I want to emphasize that because medieval disability studies is actually a very new field just in the last couple of decades that started thriving and we’re still figuring out what the story was the big picture overarching story but these case studies do model some of the ways that we go about approaching disability and the larger story of his history of disability in the Middle Ages all of these blend humanistic inquiry with discourses of science and ideas from sociology and medicine in order to think through that history it’s an inherently interdisciplinary and intersectional field. before I dive straight into the Middle Ages I want to give some modern orientation to the field of disability studies there are some things I want you to know first of all that when we think about disability as a category there’s been a lot of ink spilled over what that even means many of the models for thinking about disability in terms of disability studies and disability activism have come in response to what is referred to as the medical model and that’s not to say that the that medicine is bad we all agree that we should have access to medicine and I don’t know healthcare and insurance but we we do agree that there is more to the experience of disability than just medicine and. that’s what the social and cultural models as they’re called react to in terms of medicine. the medical model is framed as thinking okay there needs to be a fix there needs to be a cure and yes absolutely medical treatment is valuable and important but there’s also other ways of understanding disability for example there is a difference between impairment and the actual social or cultural construct of what we call disability. let me break that down for you a little bit the physiological reality of our bodies can constitute an impairment for example a person may have a mobility impairment that impacts their ability to walk and. they use a wheelchair that is not necessarily a disability even though it doesn’t have to be experienced neutrally or positively it can be negatively even but it becomes a disability when the society in which that person lives makes it difficult to access certain resources or institutions or does not provide adequate and fair accommodations for example needing to use a wheelchair becomes a disability when you can’t get somewhere without going up stairs within this context of the difference between impairment and disability there’s been a lot of modeling in terms of what isn’t disability if you think about that you could say able-bodied miss perhaps it’s a bit wordy and it’s actually a fairly new term ability we don’t usually use in that context a lot of times we think about what is normal and refer to quote-unquote normal bodies but that too has some baggage and. a scholar Leonard Davis has argued that we didn’t really have this concept of normalcy until the 19th century when the development of statistics of demographics started making observations about larger populations and noticing some really tidy bell curves and saying okay well if you’re within a few standard deviations of average that is quote unquote normal and anything beyond that is aberrant. that’s an idea that Davis argues was developed in the 19th century he says that before that instead of constructing ourselves in fitting and keeping with or in opposition to the quote unquote normal instead we thought about and by we I mean Western civilization thought about the ideal and his example of this is something like Greek mythology where Venus or Aphrodite in Greek actually is the ideal form of a feminine woman and that’s not a form that any woman any real woman is expected to attain it’s not normative in that way by normative I mean it enforces this idea that you should want to be like this the way magazine covers or movies or doctored images of celebrities encourage us to want to be a certain way. Davis argues that the ideal was not normative this is a bit challenging when we want to look at a period between classical antiquity in the 19th century and this is where we start thinking about what could be different about the Middle Ages because in the Middle Ages there wasn’t this pantheon of figures whose bodies were ideals they’re not necessarily normative but there also wasn’t yet this concept of statistical normalcy and. part of my larger project is with a group of my colleagues to figure out okay what substituted that how did people understand their own embodiment how did they understand whether they fit whether they were part of an in-group or whether they were part of an out group and were there even such tidy divides what other speaking of tidy divides one other concept from modern disability says that I want to share with you is the idea of the norm eight and that comes from that word normative rosemary garland Thompson coined this in opposition to what she calls extraordinary bodies bodies that exhibit some kind of marker as different and that can be intersectional that’s not just having a disability it can also be being marked as different due to one’s race ethnicity skin color due to one’s gender due to one’s sexuality in terms of that expression of that sexuality and. the norm eight is defined as the absence of markers of difference it’s very much akin to the phenomenon of having medical trials where the population is entirely homogeneous I suspect you can imagine that that medical trial might be with a group of white middle-class middle-aged men and that’s how we end up with medicines where we’re not sure how they react for example in women’s bodies or engine in intersex bodies. that idea that there’s an unmarked body that is supposed to stand in for everyone that’s the norm eight doesn’t mean it’s wrong to have that body you can’t help it but it does mean that it’s a cultural force right that has real impacts in terms of real people’s lives and experiences of their own bodies whether they’re norm eight or not. these concepts are really valuable as foundational ideas for thinking through experiences of the body but they’re also essentially modern in a large part of my research is to argue that in the Middle Ages disability wasn’t modern it seems like such an obvious thing the Middle Ages were not modern and disability wasn’t monolithic either in the advertising for this event we pointed out that the Middle Ages spans roughly a thousand years and that means that there’s a lot of difference in that time and. even though I’m gonna skip around within the Middle Ages I don’t want to give the impression that there’s any kind of homogeneity individuals had distinct experiences and also different communities had distinct experiences. keep that in mind even as we move across this larger period and. in order to figure out how the Middle Ages might be different we need specifically medieval models for understanding disability and impairment as it was understood in the Middle Ages. a couple of models to start and then I promise I’m gonna start storytelling some models for the Middle Ages have come out to 2012 was a huge year for medical disability studies they’re like five more publications that really change the field at that time but two of them are really crucial for today first is Edward Wheatley who’s actually just down at Loyola University Chicago his religious model is very similar to that medical model I mentioned a few minutes ago in that it argues that in medieval Christianity specifically the dominant religion in Europe at the time in medieval Christianity impairment was something to be healed it was expected to be fixed and I could put fixed in scare quotes and that’s the sense of impairment being something that’s not desired but it’s also a bit more complicated than that because in medieval Christianity impairment even as it’s something to be fixed is also something that’s very necessary for conveying and demonstrating divine power. anyone familiar with the Christian Bible may be recalling that in the New Testament in the Gospels describing the life of Christ there are several healing miracles in which Christ will heal someone and in most of them he’ll say something like go forth and sin no more well that suggests that the disability or the impairment blindness or mobility impairment had something to do with having sinned it suggests that disability is a punishment for sin and we see and we will see in my stories that that’s an idea that was common know pervasive but common in the Middle Ages but when in a particular instance when Christ heals a man born blind his disciples asked who sinned that man or his parents Christ responds neither he has born blind. that I can demonstrate God’s power by healing him and that’s the the core of Wheatley’s religious model that there’s this contradiction between disability being something to be eliminated to be eradicated and yet also something really necessary to this core religious belief and faith in divine power that in the age of faith as the Middle Ages is sometimes called was really crucial to understanding what it meant to be Christian another way of thinking about disability is a very complicated and distinctly not modern phenomenon in the Middle Ages is Tory pure men’s gendered model the argument there is that is actually really rooted in medieval medicine medical understandings of the female body. in the Middle Ages one of the dominant ways of understanding sexual dimorphism in humans was that the female body or anything other than a masculine body was a flawed or deformed or weakened version of the male this should echo that idea of the norm eight that there is one standard and then there is the other and. this medical idea that in gestation in the womb a shortage of of temperature being not quite right or or the woman the mother looking at something wrong that that could create instead a daughter rather than a son that idea creates a concept of gender a concept of gender difference in a way that is disabling. if the idea that your body makes you other physically lesser that’s the correspondence there in this model between gender and disability this is what I’m getting at when I say that disability studies is an inherently intersectional model we can’t look at it in the Middle Ages and think of any kind of holistic model without thinking about the really crucial role of medieval concepts of gender and religion and as I’ll argue concepts of class concepts of race concepts even of age and nationality. when we talk about disability in the Middle Ages it’s tricky because there’s no unifying term there’s no language either Latin or Greek or a vernacular language that was spoken in medieval Europe that has a single unifying term but we do have some alternatives we could just speak about impairment lacking that social construct but that’s not quite there because there is a social contract there is stigma there is lack of access some folks have used infirmity off of the Latin word infirmity ox and then we’ll probably looks like the odd one out up there in hallu that looks weird because it’s Old English in hallow is an early version of what has become unwhole or unhealthy in modern english and it essentially refers to an idea of being not quite right in fact to use the term nor mate again it kind of refers to anything that’s not normal but of course because it’s a thousand years well came into use about 1,500 years before first married girl and Thompson was writing it’s also just not quite a perfect fit with that I until my colleagues prefer to use the term disability and this is for a very activist but also a very historical reason because disability studies is an inherently activist field it inherently proclaims and advocates for the rights of individuals with disabilities for whatever reason that they might have a disability whether it’s congenital or acquired or temporary or invisible that there is there’s deserving to be noticed there’s deserving to be recognized and there’s deserving to live one’s life that is an inherent argument of studying disability in this way and people with disabilities today I found often want to see themselves reflected in history we all do don’t we we want to see ourselves reflected in the history of where we come from or where we’re told we come from that’s why we study it when it comes down to it. in my definition disability is the experience of a physiological difference that usually but not always negatively impact an individual’s educational or professional prospects their need for medical treatment access to institutions services and public spaces and/or the perception of the society in which they live this is actually really easy to apply to both the modern current world and the Middle Ages because they’ve had bodies they had education they had professions medical treatments institutions public services and spaces and they definitely had a lot of thoughts about how folks who looked different from them fit or did not fit into their communities and that’s where we get the stories that I’m going to with you tonight we get these stories out of different approaches to bodily difference and sometimes it fit a lot better than we might imagine. I want to start with this political story how many of you have heard of King Alfred the Great yeah and if you don’t mind a little bit of audience participation what do you know about him anything at all he was an English king yeah and he birthed the Cape that’s what I was looking for those are the two things people usually know about Alfred the Great is that they say he’s the first King of England and he burnt the cakes I’ll get to the cakes in a minute first to dispel that myth he actually wasn’t the King of England he was the king of Wessex which was a kingdom of anglo-saxons well Saxons prior to the unification of what we now call England today. prior to well in the early Middle Ages there were a bunch of different kingdoms of different levels of power and at the time that Alfred was King Wessex was one of the few that wasn’t currently being ruled by Vikings. it’s the forbear of what became a unified England and Alfred is one of the first to label himself king of all the English although he does say king of all the English except those under the rule of the Danes. acknowledging that they’re okay. Alfred the Great Wessex is down on the south edge of England there. you can get a little bit of a visualization going he came to the throne in 871 in the midst of quite a lot of conflict it’s actually dramatized by the arrows swooshing all over this map England what would become England was under attack by Danish Vikings and this would eventually result in the creation of what is known as the Danelaw a region in the east and north of England where Danish law was prioritized over English law and actually studies have shown that even to this day the prominent the prevalence of blue eyes is dramatically higher on the Danish side of that line simply because of the genetic makeup of the people who lived there for. long. Alfred inherited this but he was never supposed to be king he was the last of five sons and all of his older brothers were kings before him he was actually trained it seems for more of a religious career he was allegedly brought to see the Pope and blessed by the Pope and he was given this fantastic education he was raised at court he was actually a very bookish and scholarly individual he also after he ran out of older brothers and became King that might have had something to do with the Vikings after he became King he actually lost Wessex he was kicked out from his throne and he was in hiding and this is when he allegedly burnt the cakes this is an uncorrupted folk story I love this folk story that he was in hiding from the Vikings he’s staying he’s he’s in hiding with this woman in the sort of rural cottage and she fakes he she doesn’t know he’s the king she leaves him alone while she’s cooking some small cakes like oak cakes when she comes back they’re burning because he’s. lost in his troubles he’s trying to figure out how to retain his kingdom and she comes back just why if you want the cakes burned because he’s the king and he knows nothing about how to cook. that’s not the important part of his story for tonight but figured I’d at least let you know that that’s what some some people will ask you for in the future. Alfred did get Wessex back and he did consolidate his power and after that point he did that through a successful guerrilla warfare campaign but also a successful propaganda campaign which may have produced the story about the oatcakes he consolidated his power and he produced an extensive literacy program which included drawing scholars to his court much like Charlemagne had done about hundred years before and these scholars these religious men these well-read men were involved in translating texts from Latin into English and I give you this list just to demonstrate that these are major texts in early Christianity boethius’s consolation of philosophy is often still read and taught today dialects of Gregory Augustin soliloquies Alfred allegedly himself translated this top list including the first 50 Psalms before he died there’s additional text that we are attributed to others in his program that should actually read Gregory’s pastoral care which is a text on how to essentially be a good pastor to your flock also some global history in the history scans the pagans and beads ecclesiastical history which was a native English text but written in Latin it’s the ecclesiastical history of what we now translate as the English people I also note that this image I’ve given you here is of what’s called the Alfred Jewell we call this the Alfred Jewell because it says around it Alfred orders me made and it was found very near to the island it used to be an island they drained the marshes that surrounded it where Alfred allegedly burned the cakes but it’s also what we think is it’s what we think is an Astle and an Astle is a very rare word in the text we have it describes we think the bulb or the handle of a pointer essentially something you would hold in your hand to point to the lines of a text and in the preface to that pastoral care texts that Alfred had sent to every bishop in his realm Alfred said he was sending as well and Astle worth 50 money denominations that we actually don’t know how to translate quite but a very valuable object and this which we founded is now in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford may be one of those it may be something that Alfred this Alfred action ordered me what does that story have to do with disability it’s important to remember that Alfred had a chronic illness it’s been suggested that we could diagnose him as having Crohn’s disease a chronic inflammatory condition of the digestive tract and we know this not from physical evidence from his body we’ve actually lost his remains well we do have textual evidence that describes it a sir you’re welcome Tom wrote a biography of Alfred which we should we should be aware was propaganda it was trying to argue for Alfred perhaps being a saint and was also trying to argue for his political power as well it was written during his lifetime.

Wn@Tl - Disability In The Middle Ages: Five Brief Histories. Leah Pope Parker. 2021

Alfred would have read it but Pasteur puts a lot of emphasis on Alfred experience of his chronic illness. a sir describes it as a sudden and immense pain which was unknown to all physicians it’s beyond medical knowledge and it’s quote the worst thing that for such a long time from his 20th year up to his 40th and even longer Oscar was writing when Alfred was about 45 it his illness could be prolonged incessantly through. many cycles of years this comes from a passage of the biography describing Alfred’s wedding night this is when it came on I highlight this that this is the Alfred who kept Wessex out of Viking hands that this man had a chronic very serious pain affecting him throughout his life I highlight this not to make him an inspiration but to show how integral the identification with a physical impairment or illness they identification with what we call disability even without a term could be for constructing a medieval person and really a medieval cultures identity and there’s more because a saw actually gives some backstory on this. back in his lustful youth alfred was very troubled he was very pious by his lustful urges and. he allegedly besought the mercy of the Lord to the extent that the Almighty God in his immense clemency might change the torments of this present and troublesome infirmity for some lighter illness on this condition nevertheless that the new illness should not appear on the outside of his body lest he might become useless and despised he feared leprosy and blindness or some other such disease which soon make men upon whom they fall both useless and despised there’s a lot in here. let’s unpack it a bit. Alfred from his youth had piles or hemorrhoids and as actually says that when the more intense illness came on people thought it was related if it was Crohn’s disease it was an Alfred wanted to resist his lust. he asked for some lighter illness not to have no illness but to have a lighter illness one which is not visible to the outside one which is not stigmatized in the way leprosy or blindness would be for him and an important thing to note here is that we have some evidence that in roughly Alfred’s time blindness could be disqualifying from kingship his grandson who we could more comfortably call the first King of England was not the the obvious choice to become King because he may have been illegitimate but he was the oldest son of Alfred’s oldest son and when he went to go claim the throne he was attacked and his attackers attempted to blind him that attack it appears was meant to prevent him for becoming King didn’t try to kill him they tried to blind him and that cultural understanding that understanding of vision impairment as something that inhibits one’s ability to be a good judge to be a good ruler to be a good king that is the kind of stigma that takes an impairment into becoming a disability an Alfred doesn’t want this he wants something that impairs his lust but does not disable his kingship and of course God doesn’t give him a lesser illness after a short interval of time as alpha as a sir says he contracted the previously mentioned bodily affliction the piles that was the first illness through the gift of God in which illness laboring long and painfully for many years he despaired even of life until after he made his prayer and God took it away from him entirely. to clarify the timeline a bit he has piles from his childhood well from his adolescence where he wants to not be. lustful he has the hemorrhoids and then he prays sort of a spur of the moment while he’s out hunting he goes into a chapel and prays could I have a lesser illness and God took the hemorrhoids away from him but alas when it was taken away another more troublesome disorder sees him as we have said at his wedding feast and this wore him out incessantly by night and today from the 20th year of his age up to his 45th year but if at any time through the mercy of God that illness were banished for one day or a night or even for the interval of only one hour nevertheless the fear and dread of that terrible bodily pain never left him as it seemed to him but but rendered him almost useless as it seemed to him in divine as well as in human affairs. what we have here is a disability because Alfred is. hampered he’s. unable to do what he believes he should be able to do it’s rather than a social social or a culturally enforced stigma it’s something that Alfred seems to be imposing on himself at least as a sirs presenting it remember this is propaganda but Oscar is very careful to say it rendered him almost useless as it seemed to him in divine as well as in human affairs the fear and the dread of that terrible bodily pain never left him this is the king who shaped the English language as it is today because this is the king who had such a translate such a vast translation program that literacy in English became prized much more highly than it ever had been before English literature would probably not be what it is today without Alfred’s chronic illness which as an adolescent kept him reading kept him in book learning and also motivated some of his patient’s are the translations he ordered of medical texts the words I’m speaking to you right now would not be the same and recognizing the cultural political and social power that disability has in that way in terms of how the Middle Ages still impact us today reveals just how much the way we conceive of disability in the present day how we understand it as something that makes us useless or useful by by calculating our worth in terms of use it has impacts that could affect us for centuries. Alfred the Great was a major historical and political figure for whom we have a name and a history and documents and I can show you maps of where he whirled but that’s not most of the people who lived in the Middle Ages and. even though I spent quite a lot of time on Alfred I want to give some time to these remaining stories for well the next three will be dedicated to those more anonymous medieval people who lived with disabilities. thinking about medicine I’m gonna jump ahead a couple of centuries to a monastery in the northwest of England I don’t have another map for you northwest of England want to introduce you to the tremulous hand of Worcester if you were here in April when I spoke about multispectral imaging and stains I mentioned the tremulous hand of Worcester this that’s call back for you the chummy’s hand was a monk and scribe at Worcester Cathedral Priory who experienced based on the evidence of his handwriting a congenital tremor that would have caused his hand to shake producing varying degrees of impairment throughout his life and that’s basically all we know about him we know what texts he wrote in because we can identify his characteristic handwriting and I’ve given you some samples here you can see the lighter brown ink is the tremulous hand and he’s writing in the margins of texts that are a hundred 200 years old books lasted longer than than they do today and you can see especially in that top left hand example how his handwriting shakes from side to side there’s a bit of a waiver in the ascenders the vertical lines in his handwriting that’s how we know that this person existed and that this person had a disability. prior explanations tended to focus on Alzheimer’s disease or old age as explanations for the tremulous hands characteristic tremble but actually his career was. long he was writing in versions of his handwriting for about half a century it wasn’t half a century of old age. we know that he lived and continued to live and continue to work in a way that was perhaps accommodated that was perhaps made possible by the circumstances of living in the Prairie on an embodied level there’s a great deal of variation in the pigment of the ink we see here and I’ll return again to that top example you’ll see the H it’s the 4th letter in that H is far darker and then you’ll see it gets darker again in the the right hand side of the ei at the beginning of the second word those variations in the ink reveal part of the embodied experience of this tremble because there’s a higher degree of fading in the ink between dipping of the quill then in most medieval scribes handwriting the high degree of fading suggests that the rhythm of the tremulous hands penmanship is out of sync with the timing required by the materiality of ink pen and parchment there’s a temporal dimension of the tremulous hands scribal practice that both moves too fast making for those wavy ascenders and too slow allowing the ink to fade before he refills it every couple of letters and this is the emergence of disability out of impairment for someone who we don’t have a name for it’s a physical reality of his tremor affecting the process of his scribal labor impacting both the appearance of his work and what must have been his lived experience of the process of writing now the tremulous hand is identifiable today solely because of this disability because the evidence we find in manuscripts is because of the tremor that were able to identify it all as the same scribe but surely he must have known his identity to be much more than this tremor it was not consistent it varied considerably over the course of his lifetime such that it’s actually very difficult to put all of the text that he wrote in in order it was neither a stable nor consistent marker of his identity but nonetheless it’s through the physical activity of writing in which his tremor is. apparent that his intense research agenda where he’s reading and writing in all of these texts becomes apparent to us it’s only because of this tremor that we know he existed at all and because of his hand read we can also learn quite a lot about the about the experiences of being a monk in the 13th century this text says don’t expect you to read it’s I know very small this is an herbarium an herbal it’s a a book of remedies from herbs and plants this is the table of contents and you’ll notice on that right hand side there are a couple of E’s between the columns those were written by the tremulous hand and we found well scholars before me have found that there’s a pattern in what he marks he tends to mark far more references to cures for dimness of the eyes or soreness of the eyes and then a couple for like bladder stones inability to urinate a skin condition like there were other concerns as well but by far he’s clearly more invested in cures for palms of the eyes whether it’s vision impairment or pain and now we don’t know if this means that it’s something he experienced or perhaps if it’s something particularly common for monks who are writing and reading all the time with no artificial light for 50 year career I would have symptomless of my eyes – but the Selective grouping does suggest that at the very least these remedies are a particular interest to the tremulous hand or to his larger community and to my knowledge I don’t actually know if these remedies worked more scientific scholars that I are testing them and some anglo-saxon remedies did work. that’s great but that’s not the important thing here the important thing here is that an individual we have an individual here with one kind of impairment involved in the treatment involved in the understanding and the addressing of another kind of impairment and it shows us it reminds us that even if we can identify an individual an anonymous individual in this case and say they had such-and-such even if we can give that diagnosis there’s always a possibility of more factors to their identity and that to me makes them incredibly real and human. to think more about the relationship between faith and medicine because the Treme’s hand was a monk I want to now share a rather revealing story of a Christian Saint and actually those of you perhaps some of you grew up going to Catholic school or Sunday School anybody know about Saint Margaret excellent this is a brand-new story for you st. margarets fantastic she bursts out of a dragon. briefly according to Christian High Geographic tradition margaret of antioch was a young Christian woman living in late 3rd or early 4th century Antioch which is near modern-day antakya in Turkey in accounts of her martyrdom margaret is determined to protect her chastity from the pagan prefect who wishes to marry her she does want to marry him because he’s not Christian and she’s therefore tortured in prison and eventually killed this is not an uncommon narrative in hagiography about virgin martyrs in Christian in medieval Christianity but Margaret’s legend is unusual in two very telling ways first while she’s imprisoned Margaret defeats not just a devil but also a dragon in many versions including the one I’ll talk about in just a moment she’s swallowed by the dragon and burst out of its belly by making the sign of the Cross and that’s illustrated here in a later a mid 15th century Parisian image secondly after ultimately being beheaded or before before being beheaded although some things talk after being beheaded it’s a separate thing margaret prays to ask for certain privileges and comforts for those who had venerate her as a saint including that wherever there has kept a copy of the book of her martyrdom let there not be born a child that is blind nor halt nor dumb nor death nor vexed by an unclean spirit and. here we have this bringing together of impairment the stigmatized as disability and childbirth it’s what I would consider a proto eugenic logic the idea of let us not bring such children into the world which is deeply troubling to me but it’s also an idea that led to the proliferation of her cult her Saints cult because she burst out of a dragon’s belly and because she promises childbirth without disabled children she became the patron saint of childbirth she’s no longer recognized by the Roman Catholic Church because there’s no evidence she ever actually existed but there are legends of Saint Margaret that survived from as early as the 8th century and they probably existed before then the Old English version of this life that’s translated here is drawing upon Latin sources and was most likely composed in southern England at Canterbury it was composed in the middle of the 11th century there’s an association between sin and disability here particularly in this last item not vexed by an unclean spirit by this we might take a different version of this might be that your child will not be possessed by a demon an unclean spirit that from other texts likely as a reference to certain symptoms of mental illness there are other passages from early medieval England that describe individuals who scream or whale or thrash who are later than exorcised as in there is an exorcism and that that is what heals them but if you look at further descriptions of of the symptoms in those contacts there’s a very good chance that certain mental illnesses could be at play here. there’s moralization of these features not just because margaret says they won’t be there but because she aligns them with the uncleanness of an unclean spirit and this categorization I believe is really crucial here because she’s pulling all these things together she’s saying that blindness mobility impairment deafness being nonverbal being having some kind of mental illness or cognitive impairment perhaps those in poor health are later mentioned all of these are brought together and I mentioned a little while ago that there’s no single word in Old English or really any medieval vernacular that encompasses all of these different experiences of the body the way we use disability today as a category an identity category but their collection together here suggests that there was something they held in common and. even though there’s this really horrific eugenic logic at work here we can also recognize a nascent sense of community a sense of solidarity a sense of that unity that did eventually several centuries later produce movements like disability rights activism it’s difficult to locate that kind of community elsewhere in the Middle Ages and I see this as a suggestion that even though here it’s framed negatively perhaps there were people with disabilities in the Middle Ages who experienced that community positively there’s another way that very troubling depictions of disability can also help us think about nuance in disability in the Middle Ages cosmas and Damian this is another pair of Saints has anyone heard of them I would have expected more people to know Margaret than cosmas and Damian because there won’t eat Stern Saints but like that’s great cool. there were physician Saints we’re eventually martyred but depictions of them because they were physicians often show them attending to a sick person’s bedside often examining a bottle of urine which my second image includes that was a way of diagnosing in case it was new information but there’s also a persistent thread in their iconography that deals with a very specific miracle and it’s called the miracle of the black leg as you may be able to guess from that moniker this story deals specifically with medieval notions of race and notions of intersectionality between race and disability it also deals with depictions of violence specifically violence against bodies of people of color and. if that’s going to cause you any kind of distress or anxiety I encourage you to do whatever you need to do to maintain your well-being whether you’re in the room with me now or watching the feed as this miracle goes a white man had an infection in his leg a gangrenous festering wound which the Saints miraculously replaced with the leg of a dead black man he’d recently been interred in a nearby cemetery as we can see on the right side of this image this is an Italian painting from the 14th century I promised I would leave England at some point. there are a couple of reasons why this particular racialization of this miracle might have occurred probably there wasn’t actually a successful limb transplant. I’m assuming it’s not based in reality but remember what we’re looking at here is not historical medical practice but stories ideas about what it meant to have an impairment or what it meant to treat an impairment what it meant to be an organ recipient even in the Middle Ages and I suspect that part of the reason there’s such a vast visual tradition here dozens of examples probably existed is that it’s visually compelling if you look at it there is a visual distinction that highlights the fact that that leg is not the leg the white man was born with and. there’s a spectacle here there’s a sense of appropriation of body of a person of color for the purposes of the spectacle we should remember that as much as this does look like a modern transplant we can’t necessarily hold the figures in the story or the people who appreciated it and shared it in the Middle Ages to modern expectations about things like medical informed consent even in addition to the leg donor being deceased there’s no organ donor card he could sign or the back of his driver’s license. that we can’t really hold them accountable to but we can see this as a way of holding on cultural forebears in the European Middle Ages accountable for understanding some kind of relationship between disability and race and what I find interesting about this is the fact that this transplant is even considered possible because it means that there is something biologically substitutable here and if you’re familiar with the very racist imperial justifications for slavery in the 18th 19th and 20th and 21st centuries this idea that there’s something inherently different about a body with different colored skin it’s quite pervasive in those really failed excuses and. the fact that sometime in the Middle Ages for a lot of the Middle Ages there wasn’t anything that inherently different about white bodies and black bodies I think is a really valuable idea to pull out of this but we need to remember that this is still the actually very literal appropriation of a body part for the sake of spectacle for the sake of a religious story for the sake of demonstrating as we previously discussed in the medical the religious model for medieval disability the the demonstration of divine power through this healing miracle now I want to point out that in some versions of this legend the miracle occurs before the Saints have died cosmos adamian but in some variation that occurs after they’ve died and they just miraculously do this from beyond the grave that’s not unusual for medieval Saints legends but notably there are also some versions of the story that disagree on whether the black man was actually dead and this is the image that is I find particularly disturbing this image was made in Spain in the 16th century. I could totally jettison it and say well it’s not really medieval it’s not the medievals fault but it’s inheriting that tradition we have to hold the ancestral line of images before it accountable this image shows the black man on the lower right as a live donor who has had his leg severed and it’s being reattached well attached to the white man above him you’ll see one of the Saints is doing the attaching the other is examining a bottle of urine the states to be on my period of expertise. I don’t want to make huge claims about some kind of development between the 14th and 16th centuries in which this kind of image became more acceptable to Europeans that it became more acceptable to think about dismembering a living person who in this depiction is is shown in extreme agony I don’t wanna suggest that that became more acceptable between the 14th and 16th centuries but I don’t think we can ignore the possibility that in an era of massive enslavement and colonization as the 16th century is getting us into this image became more acceptable. this is perhaps the most fragmentary of the stories I have for you I have just one more but this is fragmentary because it’s outside of my primary expertise geographically it’s not England it’s temporarily out of my expertise it moves more toward the early modern era and it’s also discipline airily outside of my expertise I’m not an art historian but I found it important to share with you as a reminder that disability never exists in isolation it didn’t in the Middle Ages just as it doesn’t today individuals with disabilities always have other identities many of which also function as marginalizing in intersecting ways and if we think about disability as a larger cultural concept that functions to police quote unquote normal bodies from those that are deemed aberrant then we also have to acknowledge the intersecting systems that police the the norm eight body that that which is unmarked by race or class or gender or sexuality national origin etc in the Middle Ages as today studying disability through the science helps us to access these intersections for understanding identity and the body. one final disability history for you now when to return to the realm of the literary because it’s always nice to end at a place where one is most comfortable and I want to think not just about bodies but also about minds which would argue in the Middle Ages constituted a part of the body very much as they do today when you think about like body mind wholeness. I want you to see the Thomas Hauk life we have another named individual to end as well Thomas Hauk leave was a 15th century bureaucrat and poet in London he fancied himself an inheritor of Chaucer was a big fan of Chaucer’s poetry and and thought that he was sort of taking up the mantle of the next father of English poetry literary historians generally don’t quite agree some do in 1414 Hockley have experienced an acute bout of mental illness and we know this because of two sources first archival research has demonstrated that there was an interruption in hock leaves bureaucratic career at this point because the records say he wasn’t getting paid and quite the same way he was working in quite the same way but the records don’t say why but secondly we have the poet’s own words describing an autobiographical or at least semi autobiographical form an experience of what he calls a wild infirmity on a timeline that fits with that break in his bureaucratic career. the first part of a sequence of five poems called Hawk leaves series is a poem called my complaint and it describes the poet’s experience both when he was in the throes of his acute symptomatic phase and also afterward in this lingering stigma associated with that condition and despite his assertions that he’s recovered from that primary mental illness the the Speaker of the poem also describes a kind of melancholy a version of depression that he is impacted by in his present moment while writing the poem. the complaint is constructing the poet’s experience of what we would now call neuro diversity that is any mental psychological or cognitive situation other than what might be called normal the complaint constructs neurodiversity through poetry and this is that final method for studying medieval disability that I want to share with you because it draws on the affordances of poetry as a source for historical study of cognition. that we can go beyond what third parties say when they’re describing a medieval person with a disability in order to look at a record that expresses the experience and the words of that person himself. Hawk leap describes his sickness as something that vexed him a thoughtful malady and as hard as. filled with grief that in the morning he bursts out writing after he’s had a really troubled night’s sleep it’s a kind of melancholy as I said a kind of depression due to his recollection of his past sickness and his despair over ever being reintegrated into society he’s continuing to be rejected by his peers even though he claims he’s been completely cured for five years and even though for five years Thomas who’s Thomas Hauk leave is the the author I call the narrator Thomas because that’s how he refers to himself in the poem Thomas and have wits have been in accord for five years as he puts it but he says that all of his old friendships are entirely over shaken no one wants to hang out with him and the world as he says makes him a strange countenance they pretend they don’t know him when he through the busy streets of London. I want to use it as an example to to look at neuro divergence any difference in one’s cognitive processes through poetry and we can do this by starting with para scholarship on the manifestation of normative cognition that is processes of thought or patterns of ideation in prosody prosody refers to patterns of rhythm and sound in poetry for those of you coming at this from more sciency backgrounds and not. much poetry if you’ve ever learned anything about prosody there’s a very good chance it was I Amba contaminate spirits sonnets this one may be familiar to you there’s that ten syllable line or with five units of two beats each. for example shall I compare thee to a summers day that art more lovely and more temperate I can emphasize the beats in that a little bit more shall I compare thee to a summers day thou art more lovely and more temperate that’s a fairly normal I am a parameter language it’s not to say Shakespeare always wrote normal iambic pentameter he also wrote some weird stuff but this is fairly regular even in this very regular line or pair of lines we can see the way in which prosody that rhythm reflects a certain way of thinking about the content of these lines about what the meaning of the words is you can see that for example in thou art more lovely and more temperate I’ve emphasized it there lovely bridges between two feet of the meter and as a result if you slow it down you have to linger over the word lovely and that suggests quite a lot of things it suggests a pattern of thought embedded in the poetry dwelling upon the idea of the relationship between love and loveliness the importance of physical appearance in this poem when we think about prosody as a reflection of cognition what it comes down to is as Eric why Scot says at the level of metrical structuration the structure of metre where language becomes a verse metre and thinking are one and the same in other words the patterns of our language specifically in poetry both shape and reflect the ways we think patterns of language both shape and reflect the ways we think my view the idea that prosody reflects but also informs cognition is fertile ground for thinking about forms of cognition that are often figured as marginal both in the Middle Ages and today just as the very presence of a body typically a human body opens the door for the utility of disability studies the presence of cognition invites thinking specifically about differences in cognition that is neuro diversity we can see this repeatedly in hawk leaves complained when he is described in his own experience of some kind of mental illness for example part of Thomas’s account of his melancholy reads and this is also in iambic pentameter familiar form the grief about mean help the. source wall and Boland ever and ever a toe and toe. sorta that’s middle english macro translate for you because the rhythm is important but in rough terms the grief of browned my heart swells. sorely and in bone litter or bolstered swelling ever around and around. again sorely or injuriously it’s a rough translation the metre of the original is important though because it’s what gives us the unit of mean Herto it performs a perfect heartbeat of an iamb and the words that follow seem to follow that in mean Herto. Sora the occurs again in the next line as toe and toe. sorta. painfully. sorely and a new rhythm emerge an insistent rhythm and those repeated Oh sounds toe and toe. soda it’s not exactly iambic it’s an interrupted heartbeat in the meter that is supposed to be dead um dum de dum it’s a somatic symptom of emotional and psychological distress but it’s rendered poetically in the metre of the lines describing the distress of his heart similarly the lines in which the speaker is describing his prior mental illness not that one again in Middle English witness upon the wild infirmity which that he had a as many a Manuel Neuer on which mute of myself forecast and through a Pacifica to say within the rhythm. Drive translation witness look upon the wild infirmity which or that I had as many a man well knew and which through myself and cast myself out of myself the Middle English afford the much more concise representation of that but the metre is hard because the pronouns especially in this last line are difficult to read aloud smoothly especially without multiple attempts I’ve been doing this like trying to figure out how to read this line for months and months that it still troubles me. it’s easy to follow the rhythm of the previous line and just say on which I’m a out of my self focused and through uh but that doesn’t account for things like the final E in me Silva which would be pronounced in Middle English sort of interrupting or pulling us aside it it’s too many beats if we look at those slashes as representations of a stressed syllable there are six there are not supposed to be six another option which doesn’t fix the problem on which may on which you may it of me amigo forecast and through a that sort of fixes it and that there’s like five beats but you have to squish in multiple unstressed beats in between it’s very difficult to say and what you get is and which may suit of me me Silva cast and through. when the poet is saying and which me out of myself cast and through the rhythm casts you up and out of that very word me Silva because you can’t say that doesn’t make any sense at all except if you’re trying to make it sense in the rhythm of the meter. all in all when we highlight the correspondence between meaning and poetic form in ways like this there’s this correlation between thought and meter it reveals some of the very real experiences of neuro diversity that a person such as Hawk Lake might well have had and that to me is powerful evidence for history of mental health that I’m pursuing in my future work and remember we all want to find ourselves in history and. my hope is that by teaching poets like Hawk leave to undergraduate students sharing poets like hawk leave with you is to share that sense that even the poetry that we recognize as some of the more prominent if not quite Chaucer level poets still more prominent poets from medieval England but they were experienced these kinds of things and for many of us that’s a very familiar experience. how do I conclude this I’ve traced here this evening five different ways of looking at histories of disability in the middle ages can even list them for you we can look at disability as a force and an experience with political significance and consequences as an experience that bridged both religious and medical understandings of the human body as a stigmatized collection of embodiments that well perhaps not as marshaling as we might marginalizing as we might expect we’re in many communities not desired and thus became the site for proto eugenic impulses to prevent congenital disabilities we can think of disability as a category of identity that reveals intersectional systems for understanding identity embodiment and power well before the modern era and we can also think of disability as a very real lived experience the real people had that left traces in poetry and in other cultural objects that we’ve inherited from our medieval past there’s a first quite a lot of other ways to look at disability in the Middle Ages but I was told I only had one hour and I’ve already gone well over that I also don’t have any more slides you might have seen an earlier version of the title of this talk in which I was calling it disability in the quote-unquote dark ages I put dark ages in quotations and eventually ditched it from the title because well we medievalists don’t like it when you call our period the dark ages it wasn’t actually all that dark sure there were collapses in political structures after the fall of the Roman Empire there may have been setbacks in science but only in parts of Europe during the so-called Dark Ages the Islamic world was flourishing the culture that developed with Christianity but also Judaism and other cultural forces in Europe also flourished and we have quite a lot of art from that period in fact one of the ways we can push back on the idea of it as the dark ages is to think instead of this period as the illuminated ages because that’s what they did they they painted their texts their books in gold and it was called illumination and they thought deeply and hard about their worldview about their cosmology of theology of religion but also just of how the world works in a very material earthly sense and that extended to medical concepts of disability and also social experiences of disability and. if I leave you with anything tonight I hope it will be that that it wasn’t entirely doom and gloom wasn’t without his problems but then again neither are we thank you I would be happy to respond to any questions that you have yes that one that’s actually an easel painting it’s not an illumination in a manuscript sorry right in sequence but it starts right let’s is that’s something that you commonly see yours as a convention that’s new to us that if you’re going to do something in sequence and. you’re a friend to thee to repeat the question or did you have your mic on okay to repeat the question what Tom’s noticing is that this sequence goes from right to left instead of left to right the earlier action is depicted on the right and we’re used to today reading images like comics or murals or anything that’s a temporal progression from left to right that’s not entirely new to the modern era but I will again I’m not an artist or Ian but I can tell you that this kind of continuous representation of different parts of a scene in different parts of a frame did not have a conventional order or directionality that it needed to have in the same way that a text actually very easily can say this white man who had a gangrenous leg had a black leg transplanted onto him oh yeah that black leg came from this cadaver you can also get that kind of backstory in an image and.

I don’t believe it was that much of a problem for original viewers of this in the 14th century but you’re absolutely right that that is something we’ve moved away from today yeah well if you look very closely there are these little red tick marks I believe that’s supposed to be the gangrene and that’s probably why it’s. swollen I bet it smelled great especially back in the in the coffin thank you any other questions that I can respond to what did she say that again I do not. the question was do I use James just patternmaker pronoun analysis I do not would you like to tell me more about that use these kind of bakers text analysis to perform oh yes the idea of prosody –is cognition draws upon analysis of how pronouns function and attacks yes I haven’t dug into that but it’s actually on my list I hadn’t recognized the name but thank you may I respond any other questions baby people see as opposed to abandon babies are born. is there that’s what I was reading into what the prayer was rather than say why you go that route as opposed to just kidding yeah that’s that’s a really great question thank you. the question was why interpret that story of st. Margaret promising that a woman who prays to her will not give birth to a child with some kind of congenital impairment she lists out several I interpret that as in utero healing or as possibly an abortion or some other kind of rejection of a child that already has an impairment rather than as a plea to conceive a healthy child in the first place. my main reason for that I think that’s a perfectly valid interpretation and I do believe it’s definitely open to the possibility that people who venerated Margaret did. when they were not currently pregnant in the plan to hopefully have a healthy child however we also have some material context that suggests that the veneration of st. Margaret was really critical to the period of being pregnant and giving birth we have from later medieval England a surviving strip of parchment. basically leather you can ride on which has a version of her story written on it and we can tell from its shape from its design from what’s written on it it was designed to be worn as a girdle around a woman’s waist while giving birth. we do know that some of the the practical knowledge we have about the practicing of this cult did occur in the context of actual childbirth and. that to me suggests that there’s this idea that the baby already exists the fetus exists and there’s this request for it to become somehow different and that does not mean infanticide and I want actually should stress that in this period for all that I can’t say infanticide never happened it was not the norm it was not the norm to just leave your baby in the woods if you didn’t like how they turned out but stories like this show that people were still perhaps disappointed I hope that answers your question a bit do you mean when yes and that has been done and I assume you’re thinking about looking at human remains yes yes yes. the question was can we look at these with modern science and give diagnoses one answer is yes sometimes we can but a follow-up question then is should we it’s very Jurassic Park we can sometimes we’re not always sure that we should do something just because we can. with the terminus head of Wooster with his trembling hand writing that diagnosis of a congenital tremor actually comes from modern physicians who analyze his handwriting. that’s an example of precisely what you were asking about another famous example you may recall a couple of years ago the skeletal remains of Richard the third were found under a car park in Leicester and. there’s always been this yes the question of whether or not he was a hunchback as Shakespeare depicts similar as other sources to picked him and it turns out he had I don’t recall the precise diagnosis but I Lee I believe it’s a form of scoliosis and. they were scientists were able to look and I assume physicians medical historians were able to look at the bones and diagnose in that way I mentioned this question of whether or not we should and when we do have physical remains I don’t think it’s wrong to figure out what those tell us it only is wrong to look at Richard the Third’s body and say okay yes he did have some physical difference that was being remarked upon it also appears he didn’t have quite the physical difference that many productions of Shakespeare’s Richard the third suggest and. that’s possibly a very good thing to be able to say well actually it’s more like this but when we’re looking at something like poetry when we’re looking at something like Saints lives which are very complicated narratives and that they are in some ways understood were understood to have been true but also may have been understood to be somewhat fantastical I’m not saying that everyone who believed in st.

Margaret believed in dragons we can’t know that for sure but trying to offer a diagnosis based on the rhythm of one’s poetry I think it’s currently a bit beyond us at least in terms of responsible ways of thinking about mental illness I would not want someone diagnosing me solely based on my writing but I do know that in some medical practice that’s a part of it. I’m not an ethicist I can’t give you a direct answer but I do want to point out that many of us in the field have some discomfort around assigning modern labels when it’s something particularly things like mental illness that could have very specific cultural contexts I mentioned that melancholy was a form of depression melancholy was a term used in the late medieval and early modern era the symptoms sound a whole lot like depression but because it’s a very different cultural context it was experienced in a very different way even if the biological mechanism was similar or even exactly the same. I want to be careful about applying modern diagnoses but also absolutely it can be incredibly valuable to say look this is an impairment that existed in this period and we can know that we have a person who had this experience thank you for that question any other questions I could spawn – yeah. it’s hard question was how common do how commonly do we find evidence of what we now call mental illness and it’s very difficult to find in part because it doesn’t leave a record in archaeological evidence it does not necessarily leave a record in texts because there was a much lower rate of literacy as you may be aware and. fewer people are writing down I felt the rather sad today I felt incredibly depressed or these kinds of records that you could get from autobiographical writing. it’s a lot harder to find evidence for mental illness than it is for physical impairment I would say though that it’s not isolated to figures like Thomas Hauk leave the poet who was writing about his own experience we also have accounts from from fictional and semi fictional narratives that describe people behaving in ways that we might characterize as mental illness today and there have in fact been many efforts to take something like the dsm-5 and say well did they have these symptoms that they have those symptoms and that again is something where mental illness is. culturally situated it’s rather difficult to ascribe a diagnosis but we can certainly say this person is not behaving or experiencing their mind in a way that is understood by their culture as normative. you might take someone who is in Old English poetry you often get people who are very angry who swell with rage and that is described in a way that literally describes the physical organ of the mind swelling and that is it impairs their mental state it impairs their actions they make all kinds of bad choices and that’s a mental state that I would not feel comfortable ascribing to a modern mental illness diagnosis I could ascribe it to a certain public figure but I wouldn’t give it a diagnosis I feel comfortable calling it some form of no diversity no divergence perhaps even a mental illness but that’s one of those places where I’m very hesitant to give it a label other than it fits into this category that’s part of why I love neuro diversity as a term because it doesn’t require a diagnosis it simply requires all of our minds work differently and sometimes we don’t quite fit in the box that society gives us yeah doctors physicians the question was are there any medical books where physicians or doctors have written out remedies and and what they were treating the answer is yes in fact some fantastic I like to call them colleagues I’ve only met one of them folks over at Nottingham in the UK have tested an early medieval English remedy for eye infections it involves leaks and wine and garlic they found that in lab conditions advice staffel skites it fights methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus more effectively than modern antibiotics. if item ursa better than some modern antibiotics and. that’s obviously far away from like human trials or anything like that but that was directly from a recipe in an early medieval manuscript and that I believe is evidence that it wasn’t all quacks and remedies made from horse dung although those did exist too we have quite a few of those any other questions Oh

Common App Essay Word Limit (Best Word Count For College Essay)

Dr. Josie: Are you super chatty and don’t know where to stop your college essay, or do you have one paragraph and don’t know how to extend your essay? Watch this video for quick tips to cut and maximize your common application essay, which should be about 250 to 650 words. Bonus secret? Please don’t write 250 words. Stay tuned. Dr. Josie: Thank you for joining me on my channel. For the best college essay advice, subscribe and hit the bell to make sure you get notified when I post new videos. Dr.

Josie: If you have a topic and possibly even a short draft but you don’t know where to go from there, stop and think strategy. By the end of this video, you’ll have three quick tips to figure out when to end your essay and why. Also, I’ll share some brief editing secrets to really transform your essay for maximum engagement. Hi, I’m Dr. Josie with Write Your Acceptance, and with hundreds of students all happy in college or graduates by now, I know how to make the admission officers remember you and root for you. Stick around. Now it’s your turn. Dr. Josie: Okay,. first the hard truth: respect the word count.

The common app main essay should be between 250 and 650 words. But bonus secret? Please don’t write 250 words. In my humble opinion, okay, not. humble opinion is get into the higher range. Don’t pad the essay and try to get to 649 words with material that lacks substance, but try and get to the higher range, 450, 500 words.

Common App Essay Word Limit (Best Word Count For College Essay)

Remember that this is you on the mic on a podium, and the admission officers are listening to you. You have a direct line of communication to showcase your best self on this essay,. maximize that time, maximize their attention. Dr. Josie: Okay, now bonus for supplements. If the word count says no more than 200 words, stay to below 200 words.

If it’s between 150 and 200 words, stay in between there. Get over 150, but stay in between the parameters. It is just as challenging to stay entertaining, to deliver snazzy content and still be of substance within the parameters,. stick to the word count because you’re not telling them that you care anymore because you added an extra hundred words over what they asked you for. Dr.

Josie: Three steps for snazzy, word-count friendly common app essays. One is: What if my essay is too long? The first thing you want to do is control+F, control+find all helping verbs.. any content, especially in our narrative sections, where you’re saying, "I was enrolling in AP calculus," you, not me, because I can barely add, or, "I was riding bike," or, "I was walking down the street," all the was, is that is delaying your verb phrase and making your verb phrase longer, kill those and shorten your sentences whenever possible. Make the action more immediate. Dr. Josie: Step two, remember that this piece of text is considered creative nonfiction,. don’t feel like you have to have these transitional moments, transitional sentences that take you from one section of the memory to the next. Break it up. You can have one paragraph that ends with something like, "After five months of attending my AP calculus class, I launched a new tutoring club at my school," and then the next paragraph jumps right into kind of disoriented delight, remember from a previous video. If you haven’t, check it out.

You jump right into a memory and they try and figure out, they’re kind of playing catch up to see what’s going on in this particular moment of the essay, and you’ve cut out sentences that tell you you walked down to the admin office, you proposed this club. No, you’re already in the club already kind of giving us some detail and some kind of narrative scene.. don’t feel like you need those transitional statements. Dr. Josie: Are you stuck on whether or not to kill a transitional phrase, or do you not know how to shorten a line? Comment below. I’d love to help. Dr. Josie: If you are more reserved on the page, let’s say you have 200 words of the 650 or like of the 450, 500, and you’ve said it all, you don’t know exactly what else to add, you have your story down pat, identify two or three symbols or key images in the 200 words that you can provide kind of like an aside where you’re talking directly to your admission officer, your reader. Dr. Josie:. for instance, let’s say you mention a car. Let’s say you’re grounded and you can’t drive, you lost your driving privileges for whatever reason, and that’s what you’re writing about.

I don’t know if students get grounded anymore, but you look out the window and you see your car and you’re kind of upset at the fact that you can’t drive. Okay. Right there you can insert like three lines where you are breaking down the symbol.. cars are a notion of mobility. They take you from point A to point B. They also symbolize kind of wind in your hair type freedom, and right now your circumstance is anything but. It is the antithesis of that freedom.. you can kind of add a couple of sentences where you’re kind of critically engaged or philosophizing a little bit of your current circumstance, and slowly you’re padding a little bit, and feel like you can kind of creatively change the way that you’re speaking where you talk directly to the reader, and that’s kind of like a creative little element that changes up the tempo and kind of gets the reader reengaged into the moment.

Dr. Josie:. whether you have said everything you want to say, whether you’re cutting your essay a little bit because you’re too chatty, or you’re amplifying your kind of critical dimensions in your essay by philosophizing a little bit, by adding a little bit more context or an aside to the reader talking about what symbols mean where, make sure that you vet your topic. Make sure it is exactly the topic that maximizes your candidacy and it’s not a dud. Also, have you answered the growth question? Have you learned something? Are you doing something differently? Are you kind of a different, more wise individual because of your experience? That is a key question. Have you answered that indirectly? And stay tuned for a few other videos where I really delve into that.

Dr. Josie: If you liked my video, if you found it helpful, please like it, give it a thumbs up. Also, comment below if you have any questions.

Share with your fellow college bound friends the video, and definitely, definitely subscribe. And if you want to get off YouTube and join our community, I have content and community waiting for you on WriteYourAcceptance.com. I provide personalized feedback to students.

My students are progressing and happy as clams writing their essays and writing supplements,. join us and stay tuned for more videos. Thank you.

Boston University- Early Decision 2 Virtual Event 2021

alright hello everyone and thank you all. much for joining us for our virtual event today wherever you are around the world we really appreciate you taking some time out of your busy schedules to hear a little bit about Boston University as well as the early decision process before we get started though my name is Randi Jose I’m one of the assistant directors on the board of admissions here at BU and again on behalf of our team thank you all for being here. as you may see on your screen we have a few topics we’re gonna go through today. just to run through that really quickly I’m gonna do an introduction sort of of the program following them and talk a little bit about our bu community afterwards we’re going to talk briefly about the application process and what that means for early decision is specifically early decision 2 and then towards the end we’re actually going to bring on two experts if you will to terriers on our campus new students current students who are going to talk a little bit about their journey and about their experience here on campus and there will be time during that portion where you can send in questions to our panelists and. if you want to submit a question there is a question box where you can go and submit that question and we’ll try our best to answer as many as we possibly can also just know we only here for about an hour or. so please after this program has ended if you have further questions feel free to reach out to our office via email or telephone or even reaching out to your regional representative that may be able to answer some more of your questions after the program and also to please continue to be in contact with our office in any form of fashion whether that’s coming to an open house in the future of course when you apply to bu reaching out to your specific regional rep or going to a high school goes in the future wherever you may be in the application process we want to continue to be engaged with you throughout this cycle now to kick us off and sort of a little bit about who we are as a community here at Boston University we have roughly a little over 16,000 undergraduate students who come from all 50 states and over 100 countries worldwide our our community here has all of our students are pursuing one of over 300 programs of study that reside in ten undergraduate schools and colleges. all of you applying to BU in the future if you are applying to for enrollment in the future you’d want you designate which school that you’re interested in and that school will open up then those majors that you that are available for that school that you can choose from and our schools range in sizes from our largest in the College of Arts and Sciences down to some smaller pre-professional schools like our school of hospitality administration our relock College of Education human development and of course. much more now our students are coming from again all around the world and roughly 24 percent of our population is from an international background. we really strive each and every year to build a global community and also a global campus both in the programs that we offer as well as the population that is occupying this 1.3 mile stretch here in Boston on Commonwealth Avenue now when you’re starting your BU career here of course you’re gonna dive right into your academic pathway and. that pathway can take many different forms whether that’s through just a big major they have in a specific school if you come in as an undecided major you’re more than welcome to use those first two years to sort of figure out what you want to do in that time and you will get an advisor to help you navigate the academic you know portion of our campus and then once you land in that major perhaps even at a minor as well you can pursue things like a double major within the same school or college you can also pursue for certain programs maybe a dual degree track which allows you to pursue two bachelor’s degrees typically within a four-year timeline from two separate schools now please note that not all programs will match up together as well when it comes to getting it accomplished in four years. you want to really talk to your advisor once you arrive on campus to make sure that is a possibility for you but the programs that you’re interested in now in terms of the folks are gonna be learning from write our faculty are tremendous not only advocates for our students but just incredible resources for all the terriers that are here on campus we have a 10 to 1 student to faculty ratio with an average class size of roughly 27 students. our students have a real great opportunity to engage with our faculty on a much deeper level as someone as an extension of the classroom and also just maybe a lifeline on campus to help you with maybe future recommendation letters or perhaps maybe recommending you for a job or an internship or something to that effect when you are part of the BU community and they’re gonna be here learning alongside of you as well because if you didn’t know Boston University is the fourth largest at teaching research university in the country and and with all the grants and funding that we have for all of our students as an undergraduate you can absolutely get involved with things like research whether that’s do an independent research through your program of study whether that’s through in-class research or even through some directed programs like our undergraduate research opportunities program or we call it here Europe or just simply pairing off with Professor and really just taking a hold of a subject and going forth that way we also want you to study here in our campus but also want you to go out and explore the world right we are a global community and. Study Abroad is really a big part of our community we’re almost half the student body well go abroad at least one semester and we’ll talk a little bit more about the process of studying abroad in just a little while but our students really take advantage of that opportunity and mind you every single school in college here at BU undergraduate wise has at least one opportunity for students to go abroad. note that whatever program you end up starting in each school will have an ability to go abroad and and they’ll you’ll work with your advisors and the Study Abroad Office to make sure that as a possibility if you want to take advantage of that work experience this is also a part of sort of overall this experience your learning piece that I’ve been mentioning the last few minutes where perhaps you’d want to work maybe overseas somewhere which in terms of studying abroad I’m doing an international internship is something that our students really love to do and it’s actually one of the more popular ways to study abroad here at BU. our students have worked for Parliament over in London due to doing some student teaching in New Zealand to doing some marine science research off the coast of Belize to perhaps doing some art galleries over in Venice and then there are some students who of course want to maybe leave bu but not necessarily the United States. there are students who might study abroad in places like Washington DC New York City as well as Los Angeles California where we have some directed programs in those three cities as well but note that your overall experience here the community is really engaging and in all aspects of that of the word really from academics to experience you’re learning and of course getting involved with student clubs organizations in our community here we have over 450 clubs organizations that our students participate in there are also students who are participating in our NCAA Division one sports go terriers and of course there are students who are involved in a myriad of things from from theater to community service to maybe some of the Greek life organizations that we have here and. much more and all these experiences have led to our students really having a fulfilled engaged and and and passionate experience while they’re here on campus and developing relationships and friendships and memories that were truly last a lifetime and and bu really provides that platform for you to explore and to dive into subjects into programs into opportunities that you may not get anywhere else and. our community is really striving to leave really bu but also leave this world a better place and to really strive for academic excellence and having that unique engagement with Boston in the world we really are game changers here on campus and that’s something that we’re really passionate about. again that’s a little bit about our community we’re gonna get a lot more in detail about that but I want to go quickly now through the application process and some of the things that we are considering in this process here and just to note that not all this information can be found on our website but also again reach out to us if any of this doesn’t make sense or if you have more questions about this we’re certainly here to help now when it comes to the process we really are seeking to bring together a very diverse group of students who are academically accomplished intellectually curious and. on and we as a member myself really as a member of the board of Admissions in my and our staff here are really conductive thoughtful and comprehensive review of your academic and extracurricular achievements inside and outside of the classroom and a many factors played into the decision of a student’s application and and and no two pieces of information are the same and they really tell us a lot about a student in different ways your your your GPA your test score is the curriculum you take all tell us one part of your of your application but of course your recommendation letters your I should Crick their activities and anything you’ve done outside of that your your application essays we’re all tell us a different part of who you are overall as an applicant now I mentioned before that we have a global community here we really strive for that global presence and. just to give you some context of where our applicants are coming from this past year we had over 62,000 210 applications from all 50 states and over a hundred and 63 countries worldwide and. when it comes to our students and we’re there and and where they’re applying and one of things that we have to do as the board of Admissions is to to go out to those communities and really learn about your schools learning about the community are coming from and. we have a domestic international team that really go out into into the world really to to hear about your experiences here a bunch of communities talk to your school counseling offices and your college counseling offices to know as much context as we can about what you come from. then bring that information back to then have that as part of our review in the future now if you’re following along on the PowerPoint here you can see this is a little bit of demographic information of the BU first-year students this is based on this fall right here in 2019 and. you can take a look at some of these demographics here but one of the places I want to highlight is that fifteen percent of our students did identify as a first-generation student to go to college and I myself was first gen to go to school as well and. if you identify first gen you know please let us know about it you know we really are trying our best each and every year to make bu and that’s in that transition to be you as seamless as possible from high school to college we know this process is not easy not for all applicants of course but especially for our students who are first generation you know definitely let us know we’d love to see how much more we could do to help in the future now we are typically looking overall for a class size of a little over 3,100 students overall and last this past year we had around 790 transfers join us for the fall semester when it comes to students applying to BU there’s really two options for for many for all of our applicants the first is of course early decision which as of now our first early decision deadline had passed over in November first. we are now talking about early decision two which is coming up as a deadline of January 6 and we’ll get some more deadlines in just a little bit just to let you know in terms of difference between IDI one versus ET two is simply the name and the deadline of which those application types are due but both early decision applications are both binding the early decision of courses of binding agreement and binding program and. II D 2 is the same exact way as you can see on the pie chart here we had roughly 45 percent of our class come in through the early decisions cycle but again 55 percent then came from the regular and pools. again two really great options for applicants of thinking that bu could be in their future now in terms of the profile for an early decision student what do they look like academically. as you can see on the screen here last year just to give some context of how many students apply we had a little over 4600 students applying through early decision both one and two altogether again 45 percent of our students were enrolled from the early decision class and then the average rank from high school was around 10 top 15 percent of their class they had an overall GPA average on an unweighted 4.0 scale elba 3.6 the middle 50% range for the SAT was between a 13 20 and a 1430 and then the middle 50% range for a CT was between a 29 and a 32. still a pretty competitive class and we’re really proud to share these statistics just because we can we see the the type of accomplishments you all have had in your classrooms and you’re just overall in your high school career and we’re really proud to say that our students in the early decision are really great just on the surface level here academically they’ve done such incredible work to get to this point of course now this is what we typically recommend for a high school curriculum and just note that no two curriculums are the same right a student’s curriculum and your transcript that you can may get for example from Ohio will be very different from someone who might have a transcript from California or from Florida or even in England’s over in India. I’ll just note that this is what we recommend for a high school curriculum but there may be some little tweaks and caveats depending on where you want high school you attend. you can take a look at sort of a checklist here but a couple of things I do want to highlight is if anybody here is interested in the question School of Business or the College of Engineering just note that we do need to see you’ve taken calculus in some capacity in high school and those between freshman and senior year and calculus can be just standard level calculus of course we have some students doing honors calculus and AP calculus where there’s a B or B C those are all great classes to take but we do need to see calculus taken in some capacity for you to be considered for either the question of school business or the College of Engineering if you do not have calculus and and we do obviously highly recommend precalculus but again if you do not have that class they might be you might want to have an opportunity to discuss maybe some other options for bu in terms of a school to start with here and then if you have an international baccalaureate degree or a French baccalaureate or German art or some sort of international curriculum we actually go through trainings to make sure we can understand those curriculums and to bring forth those credits and those classes to make sure you get all the credits you deserve while we’re reviewing your application here in the process and then just again just reminder for the deadlines for if any of you are thinking about applying to bu in the future January 6th is the big deadline for early decision to applicants if anybody here though realizes that maybe Edie may not be for you we still have Regular Decision which is also a January 6th deadline and that is the application for admission as well as need-based aid and. when it comes to this process for early decision to your application is due on January 6 and we are asking if you want to apply for for need-based aid that both the FAFSA and the CSS profile are also do the same deadline as your application. in this case it’ll be January 6 but those two documents to be submitted to us in order for us to consider you for for financial need from bu and then in terms of a notification date February 15th is when we’ll notify our students for early decision – with regard to the decision on their application and then late March or. is when we will announce for and release those decisions for students in the Regular Decision pools. but for early decision – and purposes of today January 6 is the deadline for all documents February 15th is when you’ll find out exactly the decision on the application and then just in terms of financial assistance but if because of course we cannot talk about this process without financial assistance. when you look in the screen there you can see that we are now meeting 100% full need for admitted first-year students in this process and we are primarily a need-based aid University but there are two merit scholarships that students could apply for unfortunately that deadline has passed here on December 1st but again need-based aid we are meeting again 100% for those first-year admitted students and we are trying our best to make BU as affordable as we can to as many students as possible of course if any further questions on this please feel free to call our office or also all the financial assistance office they’ll be more than happy to assist you and in this financial aid review okay I went through a lot of that really fast. I do apologize but you want to kick off now with our next portion here of the program and. we went through a bit of the beyou community the application process for applying and now I want to bring on – as I mentioned – s perks – Terriers who are living the life day-to-day on our campus to talk about their journey. I’m gonna have our panelists come on with me. forgive us we’re just gonna do a little shifting here hello team how are you oh well yeah awesome alright. again thank you all I think you both for being here we really appreciate it. first things first why don’t we just do some quick introductions. if you don’t mind stating your name where you’re from what year you are here at BU and then your major that you’re currently pursuing. yeah my hi guys my name’s Ria’s but Garcia I’m originally from Revere Massachusetts I’m a current sophomore in the College of Arts and Sciences and Pardee school of global studies and I major in international relations and minor in economics all right everyone my name is Valerie and I’m currently a senior here at BU I am from Lawrence Massachusetts and I’m studying health science as well as working on my master’s of Public Health over at BU School of Public Health awesome I’m. excited that we’re both raising valor here because they have some unique experiences and of course being in two different grades here at BU have a lot of experiences a lot of things to talk about. first things first I just want to start off by talking a little bit about sort of the big question here why did you both of you it why did you ended up choosing to come to Boston University. who wants to start I’m. actually I grew up in a city that’s about 30 to 40 minutes away from Boston. I’ve always kind of known the area been to Boston a few times but I think I wanted to get away from my hotel and explore what was kind of familiar but also still a little bit unknown to me. on my tour here at Boston University actually I also took the time to explore the city and in that moment I kind of just knew that bu offers you the chance for. much exploration. on campus you can do. much with your academics and with your extracurriculars and whatnot but you also have the city right there for you in your hands in the palm of your hands and I knew that with that that meant a lot of opportunities for my career and also just for personal exploration sure that’s awesome but what you’re asking I think for me when I was looking at schools I was actually looking a lot in the Boston area as well and. for me one of the things that drew me to be you specifically was that I felt aside from just having like students who always like excelled academically or wanted to be liked challenged academically we have like a really strong community of students who are really passionate about whatever it is they do outside the classroom and. whether it’s someone was like really involved with different clubs just shooting organizations or like a sport or an instrument I felt like having that community about around me was something that was gonna push me to really explore things that I was passionate about maybe like finding passions along the way and. that was what drew me to school awesome great and obviously when we start off when it comes to the BU career here is of senior academics. each of you has a really unique program that you’re pursuing. really start with you if you don’t mind can you talk about sort of how you really kind of landed I get of course in international relations and having the money that you have but really the concentration as well that you’re pursuing at this point yeah. for me coming into view I would say I was definitely one of those students that had a pretty good sense of what they wanted to study in high school I was involved with like my supposed to be a team and Model UN team. I always knew I was a little bit interested in international relations and. having had the chance to like take those classes my freshman year definitely solidified that I like absolutely love my major one of the things that I really enjoy about I are here at BU is that by the end of our sophomore year we do have to declare it to concentrations within the majors. you pick one in a part of the world and then also one in a specific field within the iron. for me I concentrate in Latin America and then also foreign policy and security studies. it’s been a nice way for me to really hone in on like what I’m specifically interested in I really get that likes if I’d sort of aerial study and then in terms of my minor I’m currently working towards a minor in economics and. that’s sort of been away from me to still do a subject that I’m really passionate about my favorite subject has actually always been mad despite being in our major. it was a nice way for me to maybe not have as much like intensive math then also still see how it will apply out into the real world whether like people like when they purchase things or like how trade worries and things like that. yeah it’s a really intense subject but you say. myself but it really cool this awesome value have a bit of a unique program in the sense that you’re doing what that’s called Lea for plus ones or a track and. what’s the program and what does that four plus one mean yeah sure.

I’m basically going to be earning my bachelor’s degree in health science which is a program here at Boston University’s Charles River campus but I also will be spending an extra year over at Boston University School of Public Health and there I’ll be working on earning my master’s of Public Health what got me there really was my background and again I’m really my hometown means a lot to me and. actually freshman year I really didn’t really know what I wanted to study until I went back home that summer between freshmen and sophomore year and I was just home in Lawrence for the summer and I realized that the community that I grew up in and that I live in is very disadvantaged I’m represented and just faces a lot of interests and hardships. and knowing that I knew that I wanted to kind of move into the public health field and luckily do you it is offer obviously the mph program. I’m glad that I have the opportunity to do that and it’s only one next year. that’s always a plus absolutely it seems like both of you had sort of whether that’s upbringing or just environments of which you want to pursue kind of passions you’ve already had but maybe help realize here at BU too which is awesome. to be able to pursue both that’s great now for some students coming to college one of the things that might be something that is a little either unnerving or maybe folks get nervous about is housing and actually living with somebody for many folks out there they may not actually either live with anybody you know them a growing child or perhaps just hasn’t really shared a room with someone else they’ve never known before. okay hope you or when you talk a little bit about sort of the housing process and how has housing work for you yeah. in terms of the housing process here at bu the way it works as an incoming student you get to rank where you want to live on campus. it’s pretty much you’ll list out your preferences like one through five. there’s no like set building for any of the incoming students or any specific like class here in terms of my personal experience. I actually lived in our western portion of campus during my freshman year and. I really enjoyed living there just because it was closer to a lot of our like athletic facilities um. like our campus gym and then also like our outdoor fields and our like again it’s arena we’re like the men’s and women women’s hockey teams play. it was really nice in terms of like being really close to a lot of the student life sort of stuff that we have on our campus and then in terms of my like actual roommate experience I actually went completely random until the way that that works is that it’ll prompt the short little questionnaire to like get to know your living style and ask me things like what time do I go to bed at night like what time do I wake up in the morning and. my experience actually ended up working really well my freshman year roommate coincidentally our home towns like border each other and. it was really nice in terms of just bonding over like different places we went to like growing up like restaurants or like different fun things we did in the area and. we just got along like extremely nice and you started out in West you know what’s the saying for folks you start in West what’s the little rivalry that happens I can yeah. here in campus for anyone living in West we would say West is best in terms of the layout of views campus a lot of the like academic buildings fall in our eastern portion of campus. it sort of depends on if you want to be close to them like waking up every morning and just being a five-minute walk from classes or if you rather be like closer to the gym. that way you can force you supposed to do that.

Eastern West sort of feelings on. I actually had the whole five minute situation I lived in Warren tower’s but yeah I know Warren tower’s is like one of our largest dormitories here on campus and like I said it is kind of in the center central portion of campus where you are kind of close to most of the academic buildings. I think it was just it was very convenient and I’ve had something that you prioritize that it may be that’s a better choice for you but there are tons of options on campus in terms of housing for all types of students sure sure you know I think one of the things that we’ve always talked about here EU is sort of funding your community a medium to large high school right at sixteen plus thousand students sometimes I could be a little daunting for some students joining a community of that size and. I’m actually gonna start with you fill minds you talk about how you found your community here whether that’s through academics extracurriculars or otherwise if there’s one moment club program that really set this off for you if you don’t mind sharing that’d be wonderful yeah. I think I was lucky enough to find my community through one of the student organizations here on campus actually it’s called Asian Student Union and what’s really cool about it is instant union is that it’s actually an all-inclusive organization. you don’t necessarily have to identify as Asian or Asian American to join any of our events on things like that and that was really helpful for me because I actually attended I as Cambodian and be you nothing I know of doesn’t have a like Cambodian Student Association or something like that. I felt like ASU was really perfect place for me and again ASU being all inclusive it means that you get to meet people from all different cultures and ethnicities and races. you’re learning a lot from them while also expressing yourself and sharing you know your language and your food and your culture.

Boston University- Early Decision 2 Virtual Event 2021

I’d be very grateful for them and I’ve been with them all three or four three years now. that’s great yeah I would say similarly definitely through getting involved with like a lot of the different student organizations that we have on campus here I’m really involved with Alianza latina. that’s used Latin student organization now I’d say one of the things that was really helpful for me was that within our club we do have our own bigoted little program I know the cultural Sunni groups have similar programs but. ours is called the anonymous program and my big Augustine is from Atlanta he’s actually at the same major as me. he was always a really good just like in terms of like giving me advice on like maybe what to take or just like different ways to prepare for like my different classes or things like that but then also just outside of that like we will go out to like eat in the city we’ll go it’s pretty funny because since I’m like from the area instead of him showing me around the city it’s like me showing him around the city but yeah it’s just been a nice way to really get to know a lot of people from like similar backgrounds as me and then also just have sort of like that meant mentor on campus sure sure and we again speaking about community folks want to gravitate to something really kind of bond together on the campus and. I think sometimes like campus traditions can tend to do that some things are a bit more unique to a certain community whether it’s in Boston or otherwise and. do either of you have a favorite sort of BU tradition that is around here I can tell you from me one of the things I’m looking forward to Anneli is being a staff member here on campus but also I’m also pursuing my master’s degree is the the graduation sort of a tradition of the BU seal that’s on marsh Plaza. I’ll tell you about that little bit later but yeah either of you have any future traditions you like to share yeah. my biz actually that’s. I mean you seal it’s basically the legend around it or the seal it’s in the center of our campus. no matter what you’re probably been walking by it every year are every day but the legend behind it is that if you step on it during your time as a view student you won’t graduate within like four years or I guess however long you’re supposed to or suspected to be here and. for me that definitely means a lot just being like one of the first people in life and will need to go to college it’s always sort of like reminder that like one day I walk by her one day when it gets to graduation day that I’ll be able to get sort of that infamous like the youth graduation picture yeah one of my favorite things about it is that they roll out like a big red carpet for like all the seniors. towards the end of the year you’ll see all the upperclassmen like there with their families taking that graduation nice nice I need sort of opticians you like I have a favorite tradition a nice clearly I love the first is lobster night and the second is the midnight breakfast that is open to all first-year students. I’ll start with lobster yes lobster night is basically and I think earlier in the year like in September where all of our dining halls are just giving out lobster and the lines are massive to get to the dining halls on this they’re on the specific night but it’s such a fun experience because you get to just kind of you know take apart the lobster and get messy and everyone has like little bits and gloves. it’s expected that you know you’re gonna be a little bit of a mess but everyone’s doing it and it’s fun especially if you’ve never had seafood before never had lobster before and in my case that was the situation. you know I got to the dining hall and I was like oh how do you but it’s a fun little tradition that we have here at you and then secondly is the midnight breakfast which actually I think it’s coming up pretty soon it’s typically on the last day of classes during the fall semester and we’re all first-year students are invited to have breakfast but also to engage in tons of activities that are kind of like stress relieved me because finals are approaching. on this last night you get to play Mario Kart with your friends or stuff a stuffed Terrier. like fun things like that yeah and since we’re on the topic of food obviously that’s a big part of the college experience. I’ll make it to you don’t mind since you love food keep talk about sort of the several dining options here on campus whatever merits of students and perhaps maybe within the dining halls themselves whether it’s a boot three being in like template meals they may find in the cafeteria one for sure yeah. there are three main dining halls here on campus and three of them are spread out throughout the campus. you know there was certainly going to be one in the area that you’re resigning or the area that you are in just about time of the day and I would say that all three of our dining halls have great options you know if. options in regards to like what you’re actually enjoying that day. you can have Pizza one day and like chicken pot pie the next and I’m really getting tired of the food and there’s it’s always changing up but also if you have any dietary restrictions or allergies or food preferences we have all those options too you know we have a gluten-free station vegan options and if you have any allergies that you’re concerned about the video Dining Services will definitely work with you on that and I believe there’s a curbing from wrong is there a sergeant choice option and. what is sergeant choice if they see this in the dining hall yes sergeant is actually the school that I’m enrolled in. okay I’d love to talk about it but it’s a sergeant choices basically they’re meals that are designed by actual nutrition students here at video and they’re basically creating meals that are you know a little bit healthier for you and if you want to be more conscious about that then you have those options there for you it’s not obviously the only thing that the dining hall is serving. you can have options and that’s just really great because not only are students having the opportunity to create these meals for their friends and their peers but we also get to enjoy them as well yeah and if you have a shellfish allergy don’t worry they’ll be options for you I’m for love tonight we can talk about for a long time but we should here’s just for a second. really you don’t mind as I was mentioning before my comments I do you think one of the big parts of the community that I think is important to know to sort of the relationships you may form with the Faculty of what you learn from whether that’s in your major even classes otherwise that you might take and. is there a faculty member or even adviser that you’ve been close to since being here to you yeah I would say for me one faculty member that I was really connected with was Professor shell day. she was the she’s one of the professors in our party school Global Studies. she teaches our introductory international relations course one of the things that I really appreciated about her was that she was always really inviting in terms of coming to talk to her regardless of whether it was like about the material or just like anything maybe like career related she really loved talking about like different jobs that we could go into within it within IR. that was really helpful for me just because like as an incoming fresh a student it can seem a little bit like daunting to go to like meet one-on-one with your professors in their office hours and. it was really nice to just be able to go into her and chat with pretty much anything like about anything. within our department like we do have a few former like CIA office areas and like FBI officers and like performance fasteners. she’s a really great like pinpoint person depending on what career paths that we were interested in or different like interest we had and being able to connect us with them and different people that she knew. nice. really extending themselves saying stuff to like to really connect with you and be honest um and Valcke sort of similar question but maybe also a professor or a faculty member that kind of took the class material and really made it something that you couldn’t miss each week like what was something different about the professor and how they taught the class that you were taking. actually a professor that insulin came to mind is a professor I had when I was abroad is that okay. of course yes because we’re gonna do something yeah. professor dr. Verma he was Professor that I had for my public health courses when I was abroad in Geneva Switzerland last semester and what was really unique about him is he was really encouraging of us to kind of have a global perspective you know when you’re attending school and United States and for me I’ve grown up in United States it’s kind of all that you know. each week in order to encourage us to have more that global perspective is he would actually implement a quiz on the news global world news each week I will say in the moment it was a little bit stressful because of course you know you’re gonna be thinking about your grade and whatnot but it really pushed you to be reading news articles from the moment you wake up instead of going on Instagram or snapchat you know you’re reading all this information that is I think really important to know. reflecting back on my experience with him I am very grateful that he pushed us to do that because I did gain that global perspective and now think that way and it’s really important obviously when it comes to my studies in my career any thinking about public health sure sure and while we’re on the topic of just global community and and the programs that we offer here studying abroad and and and that experience for you why did you go did you enjoy it and sort of what was the process of getting there I guess was the rustling. as I mentioned I I went to Geneva Switzerland during the spring semester last year and I was on the public health truck but was also on the import in the internship program. the way that works is in the first half of the semester you are taking a couple of horses and then in the second half of the semester you are actually going to be having an internship abroad which is I think one of the coolest parts of this program. the internship part meant a lot to me because I again was having more of an opportunity to gain that global perspective I was working with a nonprofit organization called graduate woman international and they are actually associated with the United Nations. every now and then maybe once every two weeks I actually got to travel to the United Nations Office in Geneva and be surrounded by delegates and just really important people and I got to sit in on like the Human Rights Council. this is just one example of something that you could do when your are there are tons of things to do I definitely highly encourage considering studying abroad especially if you’re interested in things like international relations public health and fields like that wonderful gosh whatever experience and when building this global class of course we’re gonna get students from all over the world or even in United States as well some things we always experienced though and realize I’m gonna keep this question to you being in New England the weather can be a bit fickle if I do say. myself even something like this week and went from a 35 degree day to a 61 degrees and raining and tomorrow I heard it’s gonna go back to 35 degrees. if the weather fluctuates every time every year all spring and. do you have any advice on things that students should pack buy before they get to campus while they’re here just our sort of prep for all types of the one other and the things they’re gonna experience especially for folks who may have even never seen snow before is there anything you give advice for those students yeah. one thing that I always recommend to people especially if you’re coming from let’s say like the west coast or like Florida or places like that definitely don’t buy your jacket over there because in terms of like the coats like definitely just gonna be designed a lot better over here just because like the weather we have you’re in New England but then aside from that definitely I always recommend dress in layers and then also have like good like hats or gloves and pretty much just like comfort all parts of your body to stay warm yeah of course and when it comes to just living here in the city right weather is obviously one thing as soon as we have to think about but I think also this urban environment I think it’s gonna be sort of a new stage for some students maybe some new environment that they’re gonna be introduced to and. how did you both sort of acclimate to living in the city is there anything that you really enjoy about living in the city is there anything that you were surprised by living in Boston and I guess what Boston means to you like. transitioning to Boston definitely was interesting for me because the high school that I attended was very suburban green fields things like that and definitely not in the city. the way that I activated to it I would say actually did this thing with my friends where each weekend if you were available and the beginning of the year we would go to a different neighborhood of Boston because again you know I’m I was kind of familiar with Boston at the time but they were deafness. things I didn’t know about in areas I didn’t know. we kind of challenged ourselves to go to Newbury Street and then the next week go to the Commons and just see what all that Boston has to offer now that’s something that I know that we did for fun and maybe not feasible for everyone but I really just I encourage exploring because there’s. much that Boston has to offer and even now as a senior I feel like I still haven’t you know got into all the different neighborhoods and areas sure and I think like similarly I’m also from a little bit outside of Boston but I think at the end of the day we can both agree there’s nothing like having Boston like right next there to us in terms of like views campus right on our eastern portion of campus you’re like about a 5 10 minute welcome like the Fenway area of Boston and then from there about like a 15 20 minute walk is also like the Back Bay Area boxing. like Prudential Center in Newberry Street Boston Street. it’s really nice to be able to just walk and get to those places like really easily I’m from our campus and. one nice thing that they do is they will offer us like a lot of things in the Boston area just for being be used to things. we can get into like a lot of the different museums in the city for free we can get like Red Sox tickets for nine dollars where some of the games that they don’t sell us yeah there’s just a ton of great stuff to do and. there’s always something going on like in the city first an estate manager now what about getting around the city or even here on campus hey can you have a car in campus and not if they don’t have one how do you actually get around to different parts of the city of Boston I would personally say that Boston University’s pretty blockable and it’s not walkable there are tons of options for transportation Boston University actually has a free shuttle that they offer to their students and all you have to do is hop on hop off there’s no card or payment system at all and it really takes you wherever you need to go you know Medina goes over to our medical campus which is about 20 minutes from a main campus. that’s one option and then also as we as mentioned we have the subway we call it the tea here and that actually runs straight through our campus yeah. definitely an option yes no I mean I’m definitely a big proponent of the bus because it has stops in front of pretty much like all of the academic buildings and all the different dormant residences. regardless of its whether you like you’re going back to your dorm or like going to class it’s definitely definitely very convenient especially once like the weather starts. I get pretty rough like rain or snow. it’s a nice like thing we have on it yeah sure sure now you kind of going a little bit deeper within our community of course with academics with exponential learning opportunities you know folks that we’re going to talk to students that want to connect with to help with some of these opportunities. are there any offices on campus that you’ve used in your time here at BU whether that’s for academic support for professional development or anything in between those yeah I think one resource that was really helpful for me especially like professionally was our Center for Career Development. I actually had the chance to take a course taught by someone working in the CCD during my freshman year and it was focused. they have a bunch of different sections that will focus on different like career paths. it could be like careers in health and nutrition in there like careers in education. my section we focused on careers in government and public service and basically throughout the semester what they would do was just bring in view alums in the Boston area and just have them come in with like their resumes and pretty much just dedicate the whole class to chat with them about their career paths and different things that did after they graduated. it was really nice for me especially my freshman year in terms of like figuring out what I might want to do. they were really helpful resource and then they would also just work in a lot of their different resources they have in their office as well. like mock interviews we did a resume workshop day they did a mock networking day. it was a nice way to really acclimate myself with like all the things that they offered I was just about to agree and the one thing that I’ve been able to utilize from the CCD is actually the resume workshops that you had mentioned and also cover letter reviews I definitely did not have the skills in the first couple years that I was here at bu but I thought that they were definitely important when applying for internships and things like that. it’s really nice to have that opportunity or you have a opportunity for someone to review and look over your resume and cover letter and give you some feedback on you know how you can present yourself the best way possible sure sure and I think for folks who maybe may be looking for some other academic support of course within your schools and colleges they’re gonna have folks of course your academic advisors great place to start with regard to you realize those services there’s also students who might be teaching assistants that may help with the course with study sessions and folks might be in the sign is maybe doing some lab pre lab work if you will to sort of make sure everyone’s up to date and up to speed of what’s going on within those classes and. all those resources are available here on our campus – just want to highlight that wave quickly now we’re gonna switch gears a little bit I’m gonna start off there’s a little fun segment I like to call the speed round. within this segment I’m gonna ask our students a quick question either a one word or one phrase answer and that’s it no explanation and it’s up to you all to sort of go online sort of figure out what’s going on if there’s anything that piques your interest look it up it might be a fun little thing you can do after the session today all right you guys ready helps out here we go. obviously as quick as you can a favorite place to study on campus Siskin lounge this skin lounge School of Theology library School of Theology library I haven’t heard that one that’s very nice okay yes favorite place to eat on campus none favorite events that you like to attend at Boston University what’s a social event it’s pretty much this tournament that happens I believe it’s towards like the spring every year but it’s among all the major like Boston area schools. it’s among all of our like ice hockey teams and. I think right now currently our women’s ice hockey team is actually the we wanted this past year. that’s that’s something to be proud of but in terms of that it’s sort of a nice way to have bragging rights over a lot of the other schools splash splash alright pause splash is an event it’s a very very large one at the very beginning of each academic year where all the clubs of student organizations basically at a table and promote their organization all of the new students. first year and transfer students and really anyone is welcome to come and see what all these clubs and student organizations have to offer and whether or not they want to join it’s huge I mean over a thousand students plus write come to this event I mean it’s it’s incredible new Kristin field gets filled yeah it’s just that’s a swag freestyle every step absolutely okay now they replace favorite event to attend in the city of Boston the Boston Christmas tree lighting with ice skating I personally love the Boston Marathon when it comes to and I will start with you if there’s one class that you think if they were any suits our interests in your programs or in one class that you think student Austin should have taken of the class that you’ve taken what class would you want to tell everyone did you take. it’s HP 353 which means the organization and delivery of us health care very important yeah I’m gonna go with the IRA 271. it’s the introductory international relations course I think it’s a nice way to spark the interest if anyone is considering and all of them were are our majors now and if what is one thing you hope to still accomplish in your view career up to this point or maybe thing to do you haven’t done yet that every student should do I was gonna go with the EDS challenge basically on campus Rhett’s is like our I guess the easiest thing to compare it to would be like five guys. in terms of the red challenge it’s pretty much where you’d have I believe it’s a triple cheeseburger like I’m eight scoop ice cream sundae like a root beer that you have to eat like all under 30 minutes what if you finish it you get I believe they have like this little trophy and you get the meal for free. I mean unless you want to pay you better finish the while sauce I believe they even hang your picture up like I’m like one of their walls they hug their but it’s like a nice little like challenge oh my god do you are you are you prepping for this coming up Sam.

I definitely want to do it I think I’m probably gonna have to do it like toys the either early of the year like the end of the year when I’m not too many people are around yeah just alike case I don’t finish it like yes I would they stay underground which is kind of like a restaurant option that we have underneath our Baystate dining hall and they’re open like in the late hours of the night just never been but I’ve heard they have great food including like ramen now oh nice yes we do all right well thank you for playing the speed round I really appreciate this we’ll go back to some traditional questions here I mean that was actually a question cuz you had mentioned about the morning breakfasts correct yes excuse me and that happens closer to finals time yeah and I think when folks were socially on campus for my finals it can kind of be a stressful time and I think that the midnight breakfast and other things that you might do to sort of Bolivia’s some of that stress you talked a little bit about how bu sort of tackles some things like mental health but even just to see what for the students and making sure that they feel comfortable on campus and knowing that they have supportive services here. we do have the student health services here on be use campus and you can go to them for anything related to health but we do offer behavioral health services a couple things came to mind I think that in general bu is doing a great job of really paying for mental health awareness and one of the things that they have done in the past and they actually did this past semester is they offered screenings in our George Sherman Union. the George Sherman Union is definitely a central place on campus for like all students go and to have the opportunity to do a screen there and such a public space really I think shows be is initiative to say that you know the conversation on mental health is important and it’s okay to have they also the student health services also offers really cute stress relief kids where you can get things like a stress ball or like a coloring book little things like that they can help you believe any stress that you may have that’s awesome that’s great and I know that’s a conversation that we are continuing matching having on campus and even just as a staff member we we also on the employee level have to go through major trainings and awareness of understanding of meaning that the means needs and demands of the students today and making sure that we can also be advocates and resources for students to. that’s something that is literally university-wide which I really appreciate that someone who works here is also that’s just awesome now switching use a little bit we as I know we’re kind of winding down time here you know obviously this is a program for early decision to interested students and. but when you think about your time apply an easy-to vu did you find that applying EB gave you was there any advantages to that with for you specifically with regard to maybe timing finding out decisions sort of the process itself but was there any event you felt when you’re applying Edie yeah I think one of the things for me especially in regards to like the timing in my case like I think one piece of advice that it was actually when I first toured to you that my tour guide gave me was that if I knew that at the end of the day that like view was always going to be my first choice to apply early decision and. like as senior year came around and I ended up applying it Edie in terms of like being able to just find out find out a lot like sooner than the rest of my peers in terms of like where I was going next year like I always knew I was gonna pick to you and. having had sort of like that sense of relief and like comfort really early on during my senior year was something that I was like grateful that I did well sure sure and with regard to just literally within the process of apply easy you know we talked about as the mission staff how you know we’d track demonstrated interest in the process and applying early decision even early decision to is really the ultimate showcase of interest designating that be you is that first-choice school right this is the only place you you want to attend be very very like bought the sweatshirt maybe dog read you know you did these like that where you might want to consider applying Edie I think that could be a great option for many students who want to showcase that yes is the only place I’m considering really for my college career in the future. I know value I’m in the ad with regard to the new pi D D and I think one advantage is that you know you get to know early as we have said where you’re going and with that you have the time to really get to know Boston University for me it was great because I took the time to do a lot of research and I learned all the traditions all the chance that we say at our BU hockey games and it really just gets you a bit more excited and more enthusiastic to attend your school absolutely for sure and some students when they apply they may have a program that they’re already interested in they’re applying as you know some students may want to perhaps when they get here maybe change them I along the way I had mentioned that in the first two years is when you have to sort declare that program of interest free to move forward in the process here at BU but in terms of just sort of any program changes or additions right. really I know you guys wanted to add the minor to your program was that easy for you do you know friends or even you’ve mouths you know friends that either added programs change their major like how to switch schools like was that giving examples of baggers friends I experienced that too yeah in terms of declaring like a minor. the way that that works is that it’s pretty much just a meeting with your advisor and then also just filling out a form where you formally like declare it. some students will either declare it first and then take the classes towards it or the other way around would be just take all the classes for the minor and then declare it officially. pretty easy process in terms of transferring like majors or switching within any one of the different schools or colleges I think one of the things that’s made that really easy is our bu hub. it’s like they use general education program and. one thing about it is that regardless of like what school or college you’re in here at BU we’re all fulfilling the same general education requirements. when you do transfer over you’re not losing like any credits or like courses that you had previously taken in the past. that’s really helpful I believe the only requirement to switch majors in any one of the school colleges is to take the introductory class and I believe get above a like B – I actually was undecided my freshman year sorry it wasn’t like in a program or a degree or anything like that and then I decided to declare my me and health science and how the same thing it was a pretty seamless and easy process it really did require just a conversation with my advisor at the time and really going over you know the credits I already had and what I was going to be future I’m just kind of planning things out for the next few years sure and then after path there was like an essay component and just making sure that you have the grades for it but I think the otherwise it was pretty simple and that that additional year just happened to be part of the program. that wasn’t anything yeah. the plus one year actually is an additional application I believe you can apply either in your sophomore spring or turn your fault I applied a junior fall and that application did require a couple of you know recommendations and. I do recommend giving to your professors and giving to your employers things like that on campus. that you are prepared for that application great yeah and that’s that’s one unique program there are a few on campus that you might have a plus one that you can add. that specific to that program. definitely check out the website for any of those additional details as we write it down here you know one of the things that I want to highlight is we talk about all these programs of study to academics and and involvement on campus off campus Boston study abroad internship there’s. much here any small piece of advice with regard to sort of sort of navigating social life as well as doing your academics and sort of balancing all of that together I would say one time management if he were on top of your academics you know if you work hard then you can play hard but also I found that mixing actually both kind of works for me personally. if I have a very big exam coming up and I’m super stressed about it I can get together with my friends who are also in that class or you can study together that way you know you still have company and you can order takeout for your dinner and while you guys are principally studying away but that’s been kind of my solution for that yeah I’m not really sure how ahead in my advice goes with like time management but I’m really just saying yes to like everything for me like coming into college was really helpful was just approaching everything was like an open mind in terms of like maybe like different people you meet are just different like things you might want to get involved in well being Europe for you and. that’s sort of a nice way for me to have been able to like stumble and like come across like different interested interests that I had and just like different things that’s great and my final question for our panel tonight and if you don’t mind we’re narrowed down to just one sound bite if you will okay if you had one piece of advice for everyone watching here this evening about sort of a college mission the application process any piece of advice or even just applying IDI any one piece of advice you want to walk away will have them walk away with here. I think we as long as that with you yeah I would say definitely stay organized like there’s a lot of dates and like deadlines and things like that especially if you’re considering like a number of different schools. it’s always helpful to keep that I would say reflect on yourself and what you would like and we need from a college or university great nice the final nail of the senior of our group here who is in art the same last year. thank you all. much for joining us in our program I just want to slide to with our final slide here just please again stay connected with us in any form or fashion in the future follow us on social media live it on the website we’d love to continue to have the conversation and of course be here for any sort of questions or concerns you may have in the future until then this is Randy Rios and foul thank you. much for joining us good luck have fun with the process and we’ll talk to you all soon thanks. much

Bainie, Byu Athlete = Harvard/Stanford/Wharton?

hi everybody sandy Kreisberg here the HBS guru this is our Friday Fridays with Sandy a handicapping session we've got an a very exciting candidate named Shaquille Walker Shaquille say hi to people and just intrepretation is introduce yourself to your HBS classmates in 20 seconds hi everyone I'm Shaquille Walker graduated from BYU with the degree in exercise science I have some experience in startups in the medical area and just came here from Bain in the in the Dallas office and I'm excited to be a part of this class not bad you didn't you didn't goof up that's what counts okay. what we got here is we've got a Brigham Young University graduate with a three seven we've got a 710 GMAT and then we've got a lot of pluses we've got a painting company gig in Dallas tell us tell us about we're just interested in how many people in your cohort yeah gain in Dallas apply to business school and how big your cohort is yeah. there's about 30 in the cohort in Dallas I would guess about 15 will apply and typically from what I've seen it looks like somewhere around five people will go to Harvard or Stanford out of those 15 that apply yeah. those are well classes a third full or two-thirds empty but those are pretty good odds yeah and what you've got going for you you've also got a startup could you tell us about that yeah. the startup is called mile storm it's a sports recovery equipment startup I was a hold on well what does that mean yeah. we make massage and heat devices that help with recovery. it'll help you to loosen your muscles it'll help you to speed up your can you give me some metrics on this how old is it what are your sales what's what's up with active are you in it sure. we started in August 2017 sale lifetime sales to date are around 2 million with yeah most of that was in 2019 because we we didn't really start sales until February 2019 and it's still operating I'm now more on as a strategic partner I'm not in the day-to-day since I'm here in Dallas at Maine well that's a that's a that's a real part of your story and then after during college yes yeah I I did an internship at Nielsen it was a project that focused on looking at their different trends seasonality flavor trends good that's good and then and then you were a professional runner. tell us a little about that yeah. I left college in 2016 to go run for the Brooks Peace in co-op could you tell us about your experience at Brooks yeah. Brooks Brooks is a shoe company it's a shoe brand I ran for the Brooks Peace Track Club in Seattle it's a professional running team and.

I joined them in 2016 just before the Olympics in preparation for the Olympic Trials and then the following four year cycle and I was there for about a year and a half two years what was there like it was an incredible opportunity it was something that I always thought I wanted to do I thought you know I'm gonna be a professional runner that's what I'm gonna do but it was also a learning experience because it didn't take me long to realize that I learned a lot about myself I I thought I wanted you know the running and the flaying Fame and the glory associated with it but it ended up not being as fulfilling as I thought and. I went back to college and started a company instead and now I'm in consulting you need a slightly better summary of that experience okay why you left you know just present it as something that had its own built in termination you know there aren't many there aren't many professional runners you know you know it was the great I joined matelo athletes I got to learn you know the Brooks company blah blah blah yeah okay here's one this is this is this is a way that a lot of people can get screwed up you have on your resume that one of your personal interest is listening to philosophical podcast oh yes they may say which philosopher do you really like a lot and why yeah. this might be controversial but there's a couple different philosophers are like I like Jordan Peterson I really enjoy Sam Harris they're very different they're opposites in fact you could say they're kind of enemies I like them both for their opposing ideas around some of the things that I really like about like what is why am I here was the purpose of why some of these deeper philosophical questions that sometimes people don't talk about but you did a good job of getting through that they might if they're annoying which they frequently are they might well be shifter annoying or what they would call Thoreau they might drill down on that alert yeah be ready for that this is a general lesson folks be ready to talk a lot about anything on your resume you yeah put it there you own it yeah man I you got a lot going for you yeah we got a three seven seven ten what's your first choice my first choice is HBS that's kind of the goal and in Stanford okay you should you should get interviewed at HBS and and you seem like a articulate type. yeah I predict you're gonna tee your chances at age getting into HBS are real good at Stanford you also got a lot going for you a question of just is there an x-factor that's what you need to get into is there some x-factor and you've you do have an extra factor and it's just a question of how you portray it excuse me how you portray it and are able to talk about. you I think I would I think I wrote you this before you at Stanford II I think your store your essay and your account to yourself is gonna count a little more than it does for most people during the secret you know fit Stanford the essay actually doesn't count all that much they know what they want and the essay can you only frequently hurts people if they say something well stupid which is rare for discordant which is my frequent that's your story. you know you're a strong candidate man and I wish it well I would just uh you know III think you should get interviewed at HBS and then just prepare for that in some yeah okay yeah yeah yeah okay good talking to you Shaquille and lots of luck and let us know how this turns out will do thanks Andy beginning okay adios everybody see you next Friday

  1. Vinay Dharwadker, February 1, 2018
Bainie, Byu Athlete = Harvard/Stanford/Wharton?