Vinay Dharwadker, February 1, 2018

thank you very much rented for wonderful introduction I had suggested a few words times also who litter the padam and Andrea public actually Center for South Asian for working out in the reaching this event in the interest of time I’ll interpret my topic which is Kali does shipping fluid voltage which echoed a brother Natalie jumped right in good with the barest introduction to shakuntla or Commodus if you are unfamiliar with the plane please plan to follow along as best as you can today there are some references but then the book and accompanying material which are available online need available by the center you can write to the center and passwords or a key to access the full text and if you can please attend the seminar on February 3rd when I’m able to discuss this at much greater length with all of you we have every time in that session effective today what I’ll try to do is what professors of comparative literature often do which is to look for similarities and differences between objects and then to make summary judgments about one or more of those objects I get by in a very compact form it’s part of a larger document I will try to give you seven or eight reasons for the uniqueness of Shakuntala invoice literature. Caritas is a concealer and we’ll leave the chip today if we sort through the simple speculative accounts of colitas horrendous plays and poems that have circulated since the century and assess them in the world empirical frameworks within history and living history it seems most likely that the poet playwright whoever he was as a flesh-and-blood individual lived and composed of each non Shakuntala around 400 seat in Hindman euro Milton archives preserve over 1200 manuscripts of the plane in three main recessions the big all the fish meal and the did not read my translation the first fully poetic and literary translation in English is based on the dignity of Ascension as we constructed in the felt humiliated critical editions published by the midnight saga press since the late 19th century shakunthala is at play in seven amps runs to 152 pages in the compact then will format is about pune half times the length of an average model play and we need about five hours for a full performance with the proof short intuitions by a company of players ranging from 13 to 16 actors on stage it is composed in Sanskrit and folk rock prints it contains stage directions in Sanskrit and it’s highly aestheticized discos for delivery is composed to the combination of frozen verse with both often truth as for Parvathi ordinary natural everyday speech but it’s a truth it’s not it doesn’t just focus the dignity a text contains 191 verse passages of poles of which 181 are in classical of all these on-screen the poems are in 26 different verse poems in separate rows optic systems except chambers and mother agendas for those of you know the system but all of them have a chat of Spadina for strike or train lights function the world is alone uses proximately fifty different figures of speech and figures of 40 groups from the repertoire of sanskrit poiitics of which simile and metaphor I just do the dropping of the dramatic action exemplifies the principles of the logical order and spatial form formulated in the non-key Shastra which was for the manuscript form around 300 Cee and the representation of emotions in the plane covers all 49 stable emotions and silat emotions and psychosomatic emotional symptoms enumerated in the Ishita reserve of a process theory of the classic Nativity the third and fourth long editions of the Norton Anthology of world literature I have copies of a couple of the volumes here. after the fourth long editions of the literature provided my immediate frame of reference who assess the case of Chicot club in a global literary canon in autumn of 2008 I was invited to serve as the anthologies officiated at and join the team of seven of the colleagues from around North America amongst ourselves we had first-hand knowledge of some twenty languages and literature’s and secondary familiarity with another who dozen extra traditions spanning roughly 4,000 years of history around the planet consulting with about 25 advisors in complementary specialties the eight of us were able to deal with nearly 100 important delivery formations as represented in English and modern English translation after four years of labor on many fronts norton publish the third long edition of the in 2012 and it is quite simply the largest most inclusive and most detailed community representation of world literature in English at the present time it is published in six volumes and totals nearly 7,000 pages in a large format or roughly 5 millions it includes over 1100 individual takes the process count is eleven hundred and twenty two most of them by approximately five hundred named authors the Texan authors carry substantive scholarly items up to three thousand words in length as well as expensive expertly trained interpreter footnotes and their group chronologically regionally generically formally automatically and the multi-level introductions and are accompanied by Maps timelines illustrations and geography as well as to all you to 600 page teaching write and an online pronunciation audio for several thousand non-english terms in the project recorded by specialists the fourth column edition of the anthology with the same basic contours will be published in June 2015 in both editions channel two love is the only full-length Indian and South Asian work included in its entirety if we look at catharsis play in this concrete setting we immediately see aspects of it that are just not visible when we view it against a backdrop either only of Sanskrit literature as a language bound formation or only of any literature as a self enclosed national literature the Norton Anthology makes it clear that Shakuntala is the earliest complete free-spending love story in global that we history that it is the first ever play text to memorize a full account of lovers on the stage from love at first sight but will happiness ever often and that it therefore creates the poor paradigm of romantic comedy in world literature without precedent in Greek or Latin it is also the world’s earliest example of cosmic drama that fully works out in theatrical representation of the range of imagined relations among the human the divine the animal the plant and the mineral worlds and that gives us not only human beings and gods but also animals and plants and mineral objects as characters on the stage this feature for example and I referred to something that Patrick mentioned this feature for example that the play team at least spans the entire movie is made kavita’s is a prime source of ecological thought in the early space of the German environmentalist movement both in the influence of herded and vector in Europe and in that of Alexander von Humboldt in Europe and the Americas between about 1795 and 1835 moreover the Norton Anthology finger work shows us that shakunthala is the earliest Asian play in the canons of world drama let it the body is a comprehensive aesthetics of text as well as performance that does not have its roots in absolutely in my nieces or in the tonic dialogue isms and dioceses or in greco-roman with conceptions of beauty and representation and that extent remains this way the paradigm of autochthonous or fully independent non visual in drama and pointings the significance of kavita’s is work however goes much further as we Rodman pointed out in a superb I say at the end of his from 1993 between the effective deaths of Latin theater rounds 200 Cee and the birds of theatre proper ultramatic takes in China around the 13th century India was the only place on earth where drama theater and performance culture but Allah infection this thousand here is a vagueness in global view to history coincides with the chronological span of classical Sanskrit captive and the Chicago and of foundational Indian politics from the naughty Shastra to moment and Godrich and as the extraordinary Avena brooked observed around the Year 983 Chicago him undefined these stones and woman Tricia column represents the best of all copying the genre of the group represents the best of fiction of the nugget represents the best of the group of Chandra and shakunthala represents the best of all marks the brief digression is necessary for an explanation of this assessment on amino groups conception spectrum Kavya is verbal discourse in Sanskrit above profit characterised by its aesthetics and literally Ness as distinct from theological legal philosophical rich women are the kinds of instrumental discourse and communist disdain they are distinguished by its radical low presentation into two branches Shravya Guardian which is poetry that completes its communicative arc in the oral oral important for each channel and three shake up the poetry that requires spectacle for its fulfillment and hence has visual aural model and textual dimensions simultaneously when the sheikah is specifically tailored for performance using combinations of music speech and enactment in the theatre or performance space in classical India outdoors upon the spaces for common its textural component the politically crafted play or performance script serves as a book that I mentioned the vehicle in language for spectacular representation by a company of actors or performers with artistically modulated sound movement and moving visual effects divides into 10 major genres and 18 minor Jarvis each with its own conventions and quotes and I’ll give you three examples of rupert’s the barn for example is a full text as an extended dramatic monologue delivered by a single actor on stage the profession is a farce with multiple male and female characters often including rules scoundrels thieves Liars and other new lives whereas the NADA is the most elaborate and elevated performance vehicle designed for bustling drum this is the as translated in one of my appendices Vishu announced analytical description in a society that were composed in Odisha in 1384 installed the genre will not act by summarizing within census of the receiving one thousand years a new boat his verse definition he did not that the best and fullest find the play has a plot that uses a famous story and lays it out in five main stages in their proper sequence it debates the pleasures of love and desire etc the range of good deeds good qualities various sorts of splendid and prosperity and the sources of happiness of sorrow and grief along with a steady stream of emotions in all their variety the nuttin is organized into packs at least five enough to pay its hero comes from a Beltone village and maybe a king with spiritual discipline a royal sage who is consistently Noble or he may be a god or a celestial being with the same food qualities an object’s main body of emotion is made up of either loved and desired or heroic energy and in spots provided tastes of all the emotions it’s ending offers a full resolution of its business and arouses great Wonder and astonishment it has four or five important characters completely occupied with the object of the hero’s quest. this is the model that Travel Club is considered to be the best I mean I’ve got a single a holistic judgment that she controllers the best number and hence the best work of the military imagination has effectively dictated the police canonical status in Indian literature among Indian scholars over the past 1000 years as well as its faintness in world literature among Western scholars since its discovery by William Jones in the 1780s catharsis played therefore occupies a paradigmatic position and is simply unmatched in global dramatic theatrical performance Librium is heading history but we cannot pinpoint dentistry to expand that position without a transnational perspective what is even cleared in a comparative framework is that over the past two and a half thousand years shakunthala is the first and foremost global model of a multilingual plane Kalidasa state text is composed in five verbal equals plus q hopefully some spit and food profits that are distinguished not only by geographical region on provenance but also by their speakers gender caste and socioeconomic class for example in second mother use shortening which is one variety spoken in the classic period around the Pantera Regent Marcum an impoverished permanent English else called gesture speaks Maharashtra used to mr. India an impoverished person the policeman in the royal capital they behaved in act six and we’ll talk about them in a moment employed multi and the fisherman and untouchable by cost uses at the bank sixteen hundred years after it was probably composed shakunthala remains the most complex and successful example of dialogue in multiple languages on stage Canada’s investment in mediums but. much naturalness that if everyday immersed in the dramatic action loses sight of the very peculiar sensitive factor in the artifice that character speak to each other in different languages without resorting to either the lingua franca of translation come with us is dicksterity with the spectrum of languages that historically span about fifteen hundred years of linguistic development before this time is covered with his virtuosity in handling an extraordinary number of three-dimensional characters son in issue Shakuntala has 54 well-defined speaking parts and although at a pinch that they can be an activist by as few as 50 actors with minor rules doubled up it remains the be equal for the largest for speaking characters in theatre history the sole exception of good is first where parts one and two the german takes many parts one into the gym differently part one by itself has been characters Canada’s treatment of speaking parts offers technically the more accomplished or digital to Greek theater which even at its final speakers in the second century BCE allow no more than four speakers on stage at one time a planetary perspective also reaffirms that did not disastrous the first poiitics in history to theorize and act an anchor as the fundamental textualist with his performative unit of the faithful and that Shakuntala is the early spring the world Canon to present its action with a full-fledged theoretically defined the internal structure of seven acts and fifteen sequential and embedded thoughts from prologue or induction who acts in tubes and hormone synthesis enclosure which is called the earth market this historical priority of Shakuntala is all important because the Aristotelian Shakespearean five and structure of a play we take. much for granted is too easy is you to be a universal paradigm even to the axiom division in Renaissance drama is a 17th and 18th century post-renaissance drama is a seventeen eighteen century fetch and manage invention finally for now let me highlight one technical component that read the Great’s repeated claims since the 1780s made from the live Jones to only Williams and after that live deep and down to our own times that Kalidas is the only clear out in world literature comfortable in many qualitative respects to Shakespeare the methods of characterization the covetous uses in act six of the gondola reveal it a little bit to the see that as escape notice. far because the plane has not been analyzed systematically in a global comparative framework the first five packs of Shakuntala displayed two main kinds of characterization a the representation of characters worth individuals the round or flat and be the representation of groups of anonymous or stock characters who function collectively on stage roughly like this for us in the interview room act six the different which is a different kind of structure that introduces the montage of these that is a woman coming us employs a third kind of characterization that is without precedent in world drama instead of assigning the task of recovering and restoring the lost rain in the story through a notable individual or group or slight group which would have been the preferred device in hand with tragedy he assigns it with dramatic ensemble which he then orchestrates without resorting to the functions of chorus the dramatic unsung wheel in the sense it is distinct from an acting an ensemble in which actors practice enactment event later poem because the dramatic device perceives of its limited action has been collected in its composition and affect the plot even though its members are well defined individuals the dramatic ensemble of at six contains four characters with distinct stage personalities who function in tandem the collective agent from metamorphose the situation surrounding who sheltered Shackleton are the protagonists this group brings together the city superintendent a brother of one of the ships minor wives and hence the Kings brother-in-law the Sanskrit word is shallow and decedent of the morning even Salah but nevertheless is a low character who loaded with nice policemen who serve the superintendent caricatures with the epithets suture and Janek the informer and the informed respectively and a fisherman born it was so-called untouchable occupational cost and hence the lowliest of the place Lou Gehrig this ensemble nature of this group which is very different from the Colossus like groups in the state and especially from the courses played onstage by 12 to 15 actors in Greek tragedies becomes heavy build in the structuring distance and interdependence of these four agents and this is the crucial point no one of them no one of these four characters can perform the task of risks recovering and restoring the shell swing independently of the others and each of them performs only one designated part of the task. that the task as a boat requires all of them who complete their contributions for its accomplishment the four characters entered as an ensemble in one configuration in the marketplace with a recipe fishermen and exit in ensemble at the end of the introduction in a changed regulation headed for the wine shop Caritas is the inventor of the successful dramatic on some new on the world stage in the ancient period but Shakespeare treatments the device independently for modern times in place and such as Midsummer Night’s Dream where the bumbling troupe of actors staging the pain within the place comprises a comical dramatic ensemble and Romeo and Juliet where the Capulets and the Montagues constitute their dramatic ensembles worried in the streets of Venice in a blood-soaked tragedy as a playwrights device a dramatic ensemble carries out the function that is inherently complex because it has several interdependent parts and such a device is successful the prop function function is well defined and the characters of the ensembles individual members are tailored to the specific parts of that function. that the necessity internal cohesion and a roll dramatic efficacy of the collective are structurally integrated into the quantum mechanics of God in shakuntala the interlude act six is an autonomous tertiary incident that is fastened directly to the shelves projecting the principal plot where it performs the coordinated ensemble functions of finding the lost ring which is done by the fisherman another thing the story of its discovery which is accomplished by the city’s super glue policeman delivering the green and the narrative to the king in person which is performed by the superintendent and hence breaking the spell of an easier over to shun under the bus is amended curse which is accomplished by the rain on its own this is where the ring becomes an inanimate character in the fate and comparative technical analysis of this kind which can only be performed if we take a live Google perspective alters our understanding of the magnitude of Carlos’s accomplishment as

Vinay Dharwadker, February 1, 2018
Related acticle:
  1. common video, your application